This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Split Injection in a GDI Engine Under Knock Conditions: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 06, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Present work investigates both experimentally and numerically the benefits deriving from the use of split injections in increasing the engine power output and reducing the tendency to knock of a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine.
The here considered system is characterized by an optical access to the combustion chamber. Imaging in the UV-visible range is carried out by means of a high spatial and temporal resolution camera through an endoscopic system and a transparent window placed in the piston head. This last is modified to allow the view of the whole combustion chamber almost until the cylinder walls, to include the so-called eng-gas zones of the mixture, where undesired self-ignition may occur under some circumstances. Optical data are correlated to in-cylinder pressure oscillations on a cycle resolved basis.
The numerical investigation is performed through a properly developed 3D CFD model of the engine under study, which employs a flamelet model for the combustion initiated by the spark plug, and a low-temperature self-ignition model in the zones not yet reached by the flame front.
The difference in the engine behavior if powered under single or double injection strategies and their influence about knocking are discussed.
Split injection reduces engine cycle-by-cycle variability with respect to the single injection case, all the others relevant parameters remaining unchanged. Benefits are also obtained as regards the resistance to knocking. This is a consequence of the different flow fields arising under the two powering modes, which obviously affect the formation of chemical intermediate species in the low temperature regimes preceding self-ignition.
CitationCosta, M., Sementa, P., Sorge, U., Catapano, F. et al., "Split Injection in a GDI Engine Under Knock Conditions: An Experimental and Numerical Investigation," SAE Technical Paper 2015-24-2432, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-24-2432.
- Alkidas, A. C., “Combustion Advancements in Gasoline Engines”, Energy Conversion and Management 48:2751-2761, 2007.
- Wislocki K., Pielecha I., Dmytro M., Jakub C., “Thermodynamic aspects of combustion in gasoline engines fitted with a multiple fuel injection”, Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport 18(4), 2011.
- Oh, H., Bae, C., Park, J., and Jeon, J., “Effect of the Multiple Injection on Stratified Combustion Characteristics in a Spray-Guided DISI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-24-0059, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-24-0059.
- Su, J., Xu, M., Yin, P., Gao, Y. et al., “Particle Number Emissions Reduction Using Multiple Injection Strategies in a Boosted Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engine”, SAE Int. J. Engines 8(1):20-29, 2015, doi:10.4271/2014-01-2845.
- Catapano, F., Costa, M., Marseglia, G., Sementa, P. et al., “Experimental and Numerical Investigation in a Turbocharged GDI Engine Under Knock Condition by Means of Conventional and Non-Conventional Methods”, SAE Int. J. Engines 8(2):437-446, 2015, doi:10.4271/2015-01-0397.
- Zhen X., Wang Y., Xu S., Zu Y., Tao C., Xu T., Son M., “The engine knock analysis-an overview”, Applied Energy 92:628-63, 2012.
- Corcione, F., Costa, M., Vaglieco, B., and De Maio, A., “The Role of Radical Species in Diesel Engine Auto-Ignition Detection,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1003, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-1003.
- Draper, C. S., “Pressure Waves Accompanying Detonation in Internal Combustion Engine”, J. Aeronautical Sci. 5, 1938.
- Leppard, W., “The Autoignition Chemistries of Octane-Enhancing Ethers and Cyclic Ethers: A Motored Engine Study,” SAE Technical Paper 912313, 1991, doi:10.4271/912313.
- Li, H., Prabhu, S., Miller, D., and Cernansky, N., “Autoignition Chemistry Studies on Primary Reference Fuels in a Motored Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 942062, 1994, doi:10.4271/942062.
- Bai, Y. I., Wang J. X., Whang Z., Shuai S. J., “Knocking Suppression by Stratified Stoichiometric Mixture With Two-Zone Homogeneity in a DISI Engine”, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 135(1), 2013.
- Baek, H., Lee, S., Han, D., Kim, J. et al., “Development of Valvetrain System to Improve Knock Characteristics for Gasoline Engine Fuel Economy,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1639, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1639.
- Kumano, K. and Yamaoka, S., “Analysis of Knocking Suppression Effect of Cooled EGR in Turbo-Charged Gasoline Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1217, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1217.
- Fontanesi, S., Cicalese, G., Cantore, G., and D'Adamo, A., “Integrated In-Cylinder/CHT Analysis for the Prediction of Abnormal Combustion Occurrence in Gasoline Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-1151, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1151.
- Colin, O., Benkenida, A., Angelberger, C., “3D Modeling of Mixing, Ignition and Combustion Phenomena in Highly Stratified Gasoline Engines”, Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Rev. IFP Energies Nouvelles 58:47-62, 2003.
- Halstead, M.P., Kirsch, L.J., Quinn, C.P., “The auto-ignition of hydrocarbon fuel at high temperatures and pressures - fitting of a mathematical model”, Combustion and Flame 30:45-60, 1977.
- Sazhina, E.M., Sazhin, S.S., Heikal, M.R., Marooney, C.J., “The Shell Autoignition Model: Applications to Gasoline and Diesel Fuels”, Fuel 78: 389-401, 1999.
- Costa M., Vaglieco B. M., Corcione F.E., “Radical species participating the cool-flame regime of diesel combustion: a comparative numerical and experimental study”, Experiments in Fluids 39: 512-524, 2005.
- Griffiths, J.F., Hughes, K.J., Schreiber, M., Poppe, C., Dryer, F.L., “A unified approach to the reduced kinetic modeling of alkane combustion”, Combustion and Flame, 99 (3-4):533-540, 1994.
- Catapano, F., Sementa, P., and Vaglieco, B., “Design for an Optically Accessible Multicylinder High Performance GDI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-24-0046, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-24-0046.
- Wang, Z., Xu, Y., & Wang, J., “Suppression of super-knock in TC-GDI engine using two-stage injection in intake stroke (TSII)”, Science China Technological Sciences, 57(1): 80-85, 2014.
- Sementa, P., Vaglieco, B.M., Catapano, F., “Thermodynamic and Optical Characterizations of a High Performance GDI Engine Operating in Homogeneous and Stratified Charge Mixture Conditions Fuelled With Gasoline And Bio-Ethanol”, Fuel 96: 204-219, 2012.
- Kawahara, N., Tomita, E., Sakata, Y., “Auto-ignited kernels during knocking combustion in a spark-ignition engine”, Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 31 (2), 2999-3006, 2007.
- Costa, M., Sorge, U., Allocca, L., “CFD optimization for GDI spray model tuning and enhancement of engine performance”. Advances in Engineering Software, 49: 43-53, 2012.
- Huh, K. Y., Gosman, A. D., “A phenomenological model of diesel spray atomisation,” International Conference on Multiphase Flows, Tsukuba, Japan, 1991.
- O'Rourke, P. J., Bracco, F. V., “Modeling of drop interactions in thick sprays and a comparison with experiments”, IMECHE, London, 1980.
- Nordin, N., “Complex chemical modeling of diesel spray combustion”, Thesis (PhD), Chalmers University of Technology, 2001.
- Brenn, G., Deviprasath, L. J., Durst, F., “Computations and experiments on the evaporation of multi-component droplets”, Proceedings 9th International Conference Liquid Atomization Spray Systems (ICLASS), Sorrento, 2003.
- Kuhnke, D., “Spray Wall Interaction Modeling by Dimensionless Data Analysis”, PhD Thesis, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 2004.
- Zeldovich, Y. B., Sadovnikov, P. Y., Frank-Kamenetskii, D. A., “Oxidation of Nitrogen in Combustion, Translation by M. Shelef”, Academy of Sciences of USSR, Institute of Chemical Physics, Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.