This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of a Vehicle System Model for the First Medium- and Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Standards in Korea
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 29, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
To properly respond to demands to reduce national energy consumption and meet greenhouse gas emission targets based on environment policy, the Ministry of Trade, Industry, and Energy of Korea formed a research consortium consisting of government agencies and academic and research institutions to establish the first fuel efficiency standards for medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) commercial vehicles. The standards are expected to be introduced in 2017 as Phase 1 of the plan and will regulate trucks with a gross vehicle weight in excess of 3.5 tons and buses with a carrying capacity of more than 16 persons.
Most MHD commercial vehicles are custom-made and manufactured in diversified small-quantity batch production systems for commercial or public use, resulting in difficulties in utilizing mandatory vehicle tests for fuel efficiency evaluations. Therefore, like Japan, the United States, and the European Union, where the simulation method has been adopted for MHD commercial vehicle fuel efficiency and greenhouse gas emission regulations, Korea has developed a vehicle system model, the Korean Energy Efficiency Simulator (KEES), as an official MHD commercial vehicle fuel efficiency certification tool.
In this paper, the development process of the current version of KEES is mainly described. KEES calculates a vehicle's real-time fuel consumption in relevant driving scenarios based on the combination of both backward- and forward-looking modeling approaches by applying vehicle longitudinal dynamics and powertrain specifications. An intuitive graphical user interface has been designed to meet regulatory as well as research purposes for future updates by providing user-friendly operation capability. The model outputs have shown promising results, indicating that KEES will have sufficiently reasonable accuracy and fidelity to be used as an effective method for MHD commercial vehicle fuel efficiency regulations once well-measured and validated modeling inputs are provided. Some of the key issues presented and determined by the consortium in preparing the draft standards are also introduced to suggest the future direction of the legislation.
CitationLee, H., Choi, H., Park, M., Min, K. et al., "Development of a Vehicle System Model for the First Medium- and Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Standards in Korea," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-2774, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-2774.
- The White House (2014) Improving the Fuel Efficiency of American Trucks. Bolstering Energy Security, Cutting Carbon Pollution, Saving Money and Supporting Manufacturing Innovation https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/finaltrucksreport.pdf 2014
- Choi , H. and Lee , H. Analysis and Estimating of Fuel Energy Consumption in Korea by Vehicle Classification KSAE 2014 Spring Conference Proceedings Busan, Korea May 29 31 2014
- NODA , A. , TSUKAMOTO , Y. , SATO , T. , and YAGI , H. Evaluation Method for HDV Fuel Economy Performance with PC Simulation and Mapping Procedure SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-2010 2003 10.4271/2003-01-2010
- Lee PhD , S. , Lee , B. , Zhang PhD , H. , Sze PhD , C. et al. Development of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Model for 2014-2017 Heavy- and Medium-Duty Vehicle Compliance SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2188 2011 10.4271/2011-01-2188
- European Commission (2014) Draft Certification Procedure. Development and Validation of a Methodology for Monitoring and Certification of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Heavy Duty Vehicles through Vehicle Simulation Final Report http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/vehicles/heavy/docs/final_report_co2_hdv_en.pdf 2014
- Fontaras , G. , Rexeis , M. , Dilara , P. , Hausberger , S. et al. The Development of a Simulation Tool for Monitoring Heavy-Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption in Europe SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0150 2013 10.4271/2013-24-0150
- Jadhao , J. S. and Thombare , D. G. Review on Exhaust Gas Heat Recovery for I.C. Engine International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology 93 100 2013
- Gillespie , T. Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics Warrendale Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. 1992 10.4271/R-114
- Joachim , F.J. , Börner , J. , and Kurz , N. How to Minimize Power Losses in Transmissions, Axles and Steering Systems Encyclopedia of Lubricants and Lubrication 1398 1411 2014 10.1007/978-3-642-22647-2_279
- OECD (2010) Discussion Papers. No.2010-10 Innovation in Truck Technologies http://www.internationaltransportforum.org/jtrc/DiscussionPapers/DP201010.pdf 2010
- MOTIE, ME, MOLIT (2015) Notification No.2015-63 Test Methods for Vehicle Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Fuel Consumption. Last amendment April 8 th 2015 http://www.motie.go.kr/common/download.do?fid=bbs&bbs_cd_n=5&bbs_seq_n=62470&file_seq_n=1 2015
- EPA, NHTSA (2011) Federal Register 76 179 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-duty Engines and Vehicle http://www.nhtsa.gov/staticfiles/rulemaking/pdf/cafe/2011-20740.pdf 2011
- Wipke , K. B. , Cuddy , M. R. , and Burch , S. D. ADVISOR 2.1: A User-Friendly Advanced Powertrain Simulation Using a Combined Backward/Forward Approach IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1751 1761 1999
- NIST (2012) Handbook 44. Appendix D. Specifications, Tolerances, and Other Technical Requirements for Weighing and Measuring Devices http://www.nist.gov/pml/wmd/pubs/upload/AppD-12-hb44-final.pdf 2012
- Kwon , S. , Choi , Y. , Kang , E. , Cho , S. et al. Analysis Study of a Procedure for Energy Consumption Efficiency by Measuring Vehicle Fuel Efficiency and Exhaust Emissions of CNG Vehicle Proceeding of the KSAE 2013 Annual Conference 414 417 2013
- EIA (2011) Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program. Fuel Emission Coefficients. Table 2 http://www.eia.gov/oiaf/1605/coefficients.html#tbl2 2011
- Zheng , T. , Jin , Y. , Wang , Z. , Wang , M. et al. Development of Fuel Consumption Test Method Standards for Heavy-Duty Commercial Vehicles in China SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2292 2011 10.4271/2011-01-2292
- Park , J. , Lee , J. , and Lee , J. Development of Driving Cycle for CO2 Emission Test of Heavy-Duty Vehicles SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-2520 2013 10.4271/2013-01-2520
- Lee , I. , Seo , D. , Kim , S. , Ko , S. , Chun , Y. , and Cho , S. A Study on the Impact of Fuel Economy as Tactive Resistance Calculation Methods on HD Chassis Dynamometer for Medium-heavy Duty Vehicle Transaction of KSAE 307 314 2015 10.7467/KSAE.2015.23.3.307