This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effects of Ignition and Injection Perturbation under Lean and Dilute GDI Engine Operation
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 01, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Turbocharged gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are quickly becoming more prominent in light-duty automotive applications because of their potential improvements in efficiency and fuel economy. While EGR dilute and lean operation serve as potential pathways to further improve efficiencies and emissions in GDI engines, they also pose challenges for stable engine operation.
Tests were performed on a single-cylinder research engine that is representative of current automotive-style GDI engines. Baseline cases were performed under steady-state operating conditions where combustion phasing and dilution were varied to determine the effects on indicated efficiency and combustion stability. Sensitivity studies were then carried out by introducing binary low-high perturbation of spark timing and injection duration on a cycle-by-cycle basis under EGR dilute and lean operation to determine dominant feedback mechanisms. Ignition perturbation was phased early/late of MBT timing, and injection perturbation was set fuel rich/lean of the given air-fuel ratio. COVIMEP was used to define acceptable operation limits when comparing different perturbation cases.
Overall results suggests that combustion phasing is very important for dilute operation while the impact of perturbation is reduced due to increased burn duration compared to the stoichiometric baseline without EGR. Lean operation was found to be very sensitive to injection perturbation, with the effect of perturbations amplified by next-cycle feedback. Due to the longer timescale EGR operation was shown to be less sensitive to next-cycle changes in fueling.
CitationWallner, T., Sevik, J., Scarcelli, R., Kaul, B. et al., "Effects of Ignition and Injection Perturbation under Lean and Dilute GDI Engine Operation," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1871, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1871.
- U.S. Energy Information Administration, “Annual Energy Outlook 2013 with Projections to 2040,” DOE/EIA-0383(2013), 2013.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. “Light-Duty Automotive Technology, Carbon Dioxide Emissions, and Fuel Economy Trends: 1975 Through 2014.” EPA-420-R-14-023. 2014.
- Quader, A., “What Limits Lean Operation in Spark Ignition Engines-Flame Initiation or Propagation?,” SAE Technical Paper 760760, 1976, doi:10.4271/760760.
- Ozdor, N., Dulger, M., Sher, E., “An Experimental Study of the Cyclic Variability in Spark Ignition Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 960611, 1996, doi:10.4271/960611.
- Samuel, S., Morrey, D., Whelan, I., Hassaneen, A., “Combustion Characteristics and Cycle-By-Cycle Variation in a Turbocharged-Intercooled Gasoline Direct-Injected Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0348, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0348.
- Ozdor, N., Dulger, M., Sher, E., “Cyclic Variability in Spark Ignition Engines A Literature Survey,” SAE Technical Paper 940987, 1994, doi:10.4271/940987.
- Matthias, N., Wallner, T., and Scarcelli, R., “Analysis of Cyclic Variability and the Effect of Dilute Combustion in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 7(2):633-641, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1238.
- Daw CS, et al., “A simple model for cyclic variations in a spark-ignition engine,” SAE Technical Paper 962086, 1996, doi:10.4271/962086.
- Kaul, B., Wagner, R., and Green, J., “Analysis of Cyclic Variability of Heat Release for High-EGR GDI Engine Operation with Observations on Implications for Effective Control,” SAE Int. J. Engines 6(1):132-141, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0270.
- Stevens, S., Shayler, P., Ma, T., “The Impact of Combustion Phasing on Cycle-by-Cycle Performance of a Spark Ignition Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 950687, 1995, doi:10.4271/950687.
- Granet V., et al., “Large-Eddy Simulation and experimental study of cycle-to-cycle variations of stable and unstable operating points in a spark ignition engine”, Combust. Flame 159, 4, 1562-1575, 2012.
- Tatschl, R. et al., “LES Simulation of Flame Propagation in a Direct-Injection SI-Engine to Identify the Causes of Cycle-to-Cycle Combustion Variations”, SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1084, 2013.
- Goryntsev, D., et al., “Application of LES for Analysis of Unsteady Effects on Combustion Processes and Misfires in DISI Engine”, Oil & Gas Sci. Tech., doi:10.2516/ogst/2013125, 2014.
- Scarcelli, R., Matthias, N.S., Wallner, T., “Numerical Investigation of Combustion in a Lean Burn Gasoline Engine”, SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0029, 2013.
- Richards, K.J. et al., “The Observation of Cyclic Variation in Engine Simulations when using RANS Turbulence Modeling”, ASME Paper ICEF2014-5605, 2014.
- Scarcelli, R., Matthias, N.S., Wallner, T., “Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Ignition and Combustion Stability in EGR Dilute GDI Operation”, ASME Paper ICEF2014-5607, 2014
- Finney CEA, Green Jr JB, Daw CS. “Symbolic time-series analysis of engine combustion measurements,” SAE Technical Paper 980624. 1998, doi:10.4271/980624
- Sutton RW, “Investigation of cyclic dispersion under lean fueling and high levels of simulated EGR,” Master's Thesis, Missouri University of Science and Technology; 2000, url: http://hdl.handle.net/10355/22201.
- Kaul, B., Finney, C., Wagner, R., and Edwards, M., “Effects of External EGR Loop on Cycle-to-Cycle Dynamics of Dilute SI Combustion,” SAE Int. J. Engines 7(2):606-614, 2014, doi:10.4271/2014-01-1236.