This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Nanofluids and Thermal Management Strategy for Automotive Application
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Stringent emission norms introduced by the legislators over the decades has forced automotive manufacturers to improve the fuel economy and emission levels of their engines continuously. Therefore, the emission levels of modern engines are significantly lower than pre-1990 engines. However, the improvement in fuel economy is marginal when compared to that of emission levels. For example, approximately 30% of total energy in the fuel is being wasted through the cooling systems in the modern engines. Therefore, thermal management systems are being developed to reduce these losses and offer new opportunities for improving the fuel economy of the vehicles. One of the new emerging technologies for thermal management is the use of nanofluids as coolant. Nanofluids are a mixture of nano-sized particles added to a base fluid to improve its thermal characteristics. In this project four nanofluids; Al2O3 in water, CuO in Water, Al2O3 in 60:40 ethylene glycol and CuO in 60:40 ethylene glycol with different concentrations and particle size combinations were studied. Their thermal properties were modelled and validated against experimental data from literature. Using a numerical model these nanofluids and typical coolant fluids were analysed in a 1.6 litre, Gasoline Direct injected, spark ignition engine. This model is able to reproduce the real warm up characteristics of the engine at different operating conditions. The estimated thermal properties of the nanofluids agree with the published literature. The thermal conductivity increases with the concentration and temperature and decreases with the particle diameter, and the dynamic viscosity increases with the concentration. These findings enabled us to choose the best coolant for a system and define a proper thermal management strategy. A reduction of 17% in the total warming time was achieved for the use of nanofluids. This report also includes recommendations for further study.
CitationVila Millan, M. and Samuel, S., "Nanofluids and Thermal Management Strategy for Automotive Application," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-1753, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-1753.
- Stone, R., Introduction to internal combustion engines. 2nd Ed ed. Macmillan, ed. Macmillan. 1992: Macmillan.
- Nessim W., F.Z., Powertrain Warm-up Improvement using Thermal Management Systems. International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 2012. 1(4): p. 151-155.
- Wagner, J., Ghone, M., Dawson, D., and Marotta, E., “Coolant Flow Control Strategies for Automotive Thermal Management Systems,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0713, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-0713.
- Melzer, F., Hesse, U., Rocklage, G., and Schmitt, M., “Thermomanagement,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0238, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-0238.
- Cortona, E. and Onder, C., “Engine Thermal Management with Electric Cooling Pump,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0965, 2000, doi:10.4271/2000-01-0965.
- Laurikko, J., Erlandsson, L., and Abrahamsson, R., “Exhaust Emissions in Cold Ambient Conditions:Considerations for a European Test Procedure,” SAE Technical Paper 950929, 1995, doi:10.4271/950929.
- Lee, T., Bae, C., Bohac, S., and Assanis, D., “Estimation of Air Fuel Ratio of a SI Engine from Exhaust Gas Temperature at Cold Start Condition,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-1667, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-1667.
- Batteh, J., Curtis, E., Jankovic, M., Magner, S. et al., “Transient Fuel Modeling and Control for Cold Start Intake Cam Phasing,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1049, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-1049.
- Andrews, G., Harris, J., and Ounzain, A., “Transient Heating and Emissions of an SI Engine During the Warm-up Period,” SAE Technical Paper 880264, 1988, doi:10.4271/880264.
- Choi, S.U.S. and Eastman J.A., Enhancing thermal conductivity of fluids with nanoparticles. 1995. Medium: ED; Size: 8 p.
- Kumar T. A., G.P., Jahar S. Investigation of thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. Journal of Environment Research and Development, 2012. 7(2): p. 768-777.
- Hamilton, R.L. and Crosser O.K., Thermal Conductivity of Heterogeneous Two-Component Systems. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, 1962. 1(3): p. 187-191.
- Yu W., S.U.S.C., The role of interfacial layers in the enhanced thermal conductivity of nanofluids: A renovated Maxwell model. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2003(5): p. 167-171.
- Xuan, Y., Li Q., and Hu W., Aggregation structure and thermal conductivity of nanofluids. AIChE Journal, 2003. 49(4): p. 1038-1043.
- Koo, J. and Kleinstreuer C., A new thermal conductivity model for nanofluids. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2004. 6(6): p. 577-588.
- Prasher, R., Bhattacharya P., and Phelan P.E., Brownian-Motion-Based Convective-Conductive Model for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids. Journal of Heat Transfer, 2005. 128(6): p. 588-595.
- Vajjha, R.S. and Das D.K., Experimental determination of thermal conductivity of three nanofluids and development of new correlations. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2009. 52(21-22): p. 4675-4682.
- Vajjha, R.S., Das D.K., and Namburu P.K., Numerical study of fluid dynamic and heat transfer performance of Al2O3 and CuO nanofluids in the flat tubes of a radiator. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2010. 31(4): p. 613-621.
- Chon, C.H., et al., Empirical correlation finding the role of temperature and particle size for nanofluid thermal conductivity enhancement. Applied Physics Letters, 2005. 87(15): p. 153107-153107-3.
- Corcione, M., Empirical correlating equations for predicting the effective thermal conductivity and dynamic viscosity of nanofluids. Energy Conversion and Management, 2011. 52(1): p. 789-793.
- Einstein, A., Eine neue Bestimmung der Moleküldimensionen. Annalen der Physik, 1906. 324(2): p. 289-306.
- Brinkman, H.C., The Viscosity of Concentrated Suspensions and Solutions. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 1952. 20(4): p. 571-571.
- Roscoe, R., The viscosity of suspensions of rigid spheres. British Journal of Applied Physics, 1952. 3(8): p. 267.
- Lundgren, T.S., Slow flow through stationary random beds and suspensions of spheres. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1972. 51(02): p. 273-299.
- Batchelor, G.K., The effect of Brownian motion on the bulk stress in a suspension of spherical particles. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1977. 83(01): p. 97-117.
- Maïga, S.E.B., et al., Heat transfer enhancement by using nanofluids in forced convection flows. International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow, 2005. 26(4): p. 530-546.
- Namburu, P.K., et al., Viscosity of copper oxide nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol and water mixture. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2007. 32(2): p. 397-402.
- Vajjha, R.S., Measurements of Thermophysical Properties of Nanofluids and Computation of Heat Transfer Characteristics. 2008: University of Alaska Fairbanks.
- O'Hanley, H., et al., Measurement and Model Validation of Nanofluid Specific Heat Capacity with Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Advances in Mechanical Engineering, 2012. 2012: p. 6.
- Pak B. C., Y.I.C., Hydrodynamic and heat transfer study of dispersed fluids with submicron metallic oxide particles. Experimental heat trnansfer, 1998. 11(2): p. 151-170.
- Khanafer, K., Vafai K., and Lightstone M., Buoyancy-driven heat transfer enhancement in a two-dimensional enclosure utilizing nanofluids. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 2003. 46(19): p. 3639-3653.
- GT-Suite, User's guide, ed. I. Gamma Technologies. 2011.
- Divakera, A. and Samuel, S., “Numerical Simulation of Adaptive Combustion Control for Fuel-Neutral ‘Smart’ Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0848, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0848.
- Lahuerta, J. and Samuel, S., “Numerical Simulation of Warm-Up Characteristics and Thermal Management of a GDI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0870, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0870.
- Singh K., S.S., Gangacharyulu D., Experimental Study of Thermophysical properties of Al2O3/Water nanofluid. International journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering & Technology, 2013. 3(2): p. 229-233.
- Kleinstreuer C., Y.F., Experimental and theroretical studies of nanofluid thermal conductivity enhancement: a review. Nanoscale Research Letters, 2011. 6(229).
- Wang W., L.L., XiaoFeng Z., Wang S., A Comprehensive Model for the Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Nanofluids. Journal of Advanced Research in Physics, 2012. 3 (2).
- Juneja M., D.G., Experimental Analysis on Influence of Temperature and Volume Fraction of Nanofluids on Thermophysical Properties. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Computational and Applied Sciences (IJETCAS), 2013. 13(345): p. 233-238.
- Murshed, S.M.S., Leong K.C., and Yang C., Investigations of thermal conductivity and viscosity of nanofluids. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 2008. 47(5): p. 560-568.
- Bergman, T.L. and Incropera F.P., Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. 2011: Wiley.
- Wang X., X.X., Choi S. U. S.., Thermal Conductivity of Nanoparticle-Fluid Mixture. Journal Of Thermophysics And Heat Transfer, 1999. 12(4): p. 474-480
- Mintsa H. A., G.R., Nguyen C. T. New Temperature Dependent Thermal Conductivity Data of Water Based Nanofluids, in Proceedings of the 5th IASME/WSEAS Int. Conference on Heat transfer, Thermal Engineering and Environment. 2007: Athens, Greece. p. 290-294.
- Das S. K., N.P., Thiesen P., Roetze W., Temperature Dependence of Thermal Conductivity Enhancement for Nanofluids. Journal of Heat Transfer, 2003. 125(4): p. 567-574.
- Zhang, X., Gu H., and Fujii M., Effective thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of nanofluids containing spherical and cylindrical nanoparticles. Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 2007. 31(6): p. 593-599.
- John T., T.S.K., Experimental studies of thermal conductivity, viscosity and stability of ethylene glycol nanofluids. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology 2013. 2(1): p. 611-617.
- Putra, N., Roetzel W., and Das S., Natural convection of nano-fluids. Heat and Mass Transfer, 2003. 39(8-9): p. 775-784.
- Peyghambarzadeh, S.M., et al., Experimental study of overall heat transfer coefficient in the application of dilute nanofluids in the car radiator. Applied Thermal Engineering, 2013. 52(1): p. 8-16.
- Bhimani V. L., D.P.P.R., Prof. Sorathiya A. S., Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Water Based Nanofluids as a New Coolant for Car Radiators. International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 2013. 3(6).
- Sampson, M. and Heywood, J., “Analysis of Fuel Behavior in the Spark-Ignition Engine Start-Up Process,” SAE Technical Paper 950678, 1995, doi:10.4271/950678.