This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
An Investigation into the Operating Strategy for the Dual-Fuel PCCI Combustion with Propane and Diesel under a High EGR Rate Condition
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2015 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In this work, the operating strategy for diesel injection methods and a way to control the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate under dual-fuel PCCI combustion with an appropriate ratio of low-reactivity fuel (propane) to achieve high combustion stability and low emissions is introduced. The standards of combustion stability were carbon monoxide (CO) emissions below 5,000 ppm and a CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) below 5 %. Additionally, the NOx emissions was controlled to not exceed 50 ppm, which is the standard of conventional diesel combustion, and PM emissions was kept below 0.2 FSN, which is a tenth of the conventional diesel value without a diesel particulate filter (DPF).
The operating condition was a low speed and load condition (1,500 rpm/ near gIMEP of 0.55 MPa). Under the conventional EGR rate condition (30 %), although dual-fuel combustion with a conventional diesel injection strategy results in lower PM emissions than that of conventional diesel combustion, NOx emissions did not decrease, whereas CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions increased (premixed ratio of 30 %). To further reduce the NOx emissions, a higher EGR rate was used (from 30 to 35 %). Additionally, diesel injection timing was advanced to the PCCI region, which meant that the ignition delay was longer than the injection duration. In particular, early split diesel injection was effective in reducing NOx emissions and improving combustion stability due to the improved reactivity stratification. The results emphasize that NOx emissions can be reduced to half that of conventional diesel combustion, and near zero PM emissions can be achieved (i.e., 0.1 FSN level). Therefore, a suitable operation strategy exists, which includes diesel injection and EGR control, for dual-fuel PCCI combustion.
CitationLee, J., Chu, S., Cha, J., Choi, H. et al., "An Investigation into the Operating Strategy for the Dual-Fuel PCCI Combustion with Propane and Diesel under a High EGR Rate Condition," SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0854, 2015, https://doi.org/10.4271/2015-01-0854.
- Heywood, J. B., Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, 1988, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
- Najt, P. and Foster, D., “Compression-Ignited Homogeneous Charge Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 830264, 1983, doi:10.4271/830264.
- Ladommatos, N., Abdelhalim, S., Zhao, H., and Hu, Z., “The Dilution, Chemical, and Thermal Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Disesel Engine Emissions - Part 4: Effects of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapour,” SAE Technical Paper 971660, 1997, doi:10.4271/971660.
- Kim, D., Kim, M., and Lee, C., “Effect of Premixed Gasoline Fuel on the Combustion Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine”, Energy & Fuels, 2004, 18, pp. 1213-1219.
- Kokjohn, S., and Reitz, R., “Characterization of Dual-Fuel PCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Engine”, Proceedings of the International Multi-Dimensional Engine Modeling User's Group Meeting. 2010.
- Leermakers, C., Van den Berge, B., Luijten, C., Somers, L. et al., “Gasoline-Diesel Dual Fuel: Effect of Injection Timing and Fuel Balance,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2437, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2437.
- Lu, X., Han, D., and Huang, Z., “Fuel Design and Management for the Control of Advanced Compression-Ignition Combustion Modes”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 37(6):741-783, 2011, doi:10.1016/j.pecs.2011.03.003.
- Zhong, S., Wyszynski, M., Megaritis, A., Yap, D. et al., “Experimental Investigation into HCCI Combustion Using Gasoline and Diesel Blended Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3733, 2005, doi:10.4271/2005-01-3733.
- Valentino, G., Iannuzzi, S., and Corcione, F., “Experimental Investigation on the Combustion and Emissions of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Fuelled with Butanol-Diesel Blend,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0915, 2013, doi:10.4271/2013-01-0915.
- Hanson, R., Kokjohn, S., Splitter, D., and Reitz, R., “An Experimental Investigation of Fuel Reactivity Controlled PCCI Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1):700-716, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0864.
- Kokjohn, S., Hanson, R., Splitter, D., Kaddatz, J. et al., “Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion in Light- and Heavy-Duty Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 4(1):360-374, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0357.
- Curran, S., et al., “Drive Cycle Efficiency and Emissions Estimates for Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition in a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine”, Proceedings of the 2011 Internal Combustion Engine Division Fall Technical Conference, Morgantown, West Virginia USA, October 2-5, 2011. ICEF2011-60227.
- Masood, M., and Ishrat, M. “Computer simulation of hydrogen-Diesel dual fuel exhaust gas emissions with experimental verification”, Fuel, Vol. 87, 2008, pp.1372-78, doi:10.1016/j.fuel.2007.07.001.
- Inagaki, K., Fuyuto, T., Nishikawa, K., Nakakita, K. et al., “Dual-Fuel PCI Combustion Controlled by In-Cylinder Stratification of Ignitability,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0028, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-0028.
- Nieman, D., Dempsey, A., and Reitz, R., “Heavy-Duty RCCI Operation Using Natural Gas and Diesel,” SAE Int. J. Engines 5(2):270-285, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0379.
- Lee, J., Choi, S., Kim, H., Kim, D., Choi, H., and Min, K., “REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS WITH PROPANE ADDITION TO A DIESEL ENGINE”, Int. J. Automotive Technology, Vol. 14, 2013, pp. 551-8, doi:10.1007/s12239-013-0059-2.
- Kimura, S., Aoki, O., Ogawa, H., Muranaka, S. et al., “New Combustion Concept for Ultra-Clean and High-Efficiency Small DI Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-3681, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-3681.
- Kimura, S., Aoki, O., Kitahara, Y., and Aiyoshizawa, E., “Ultra-Clean Combustion Technology Combining a Low- Temperature and Premixed Combustion Concept for Meeting Future Emission Standards,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0200, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0200.
- Akihama, K., Takatori, Y., Inagaki, K., Sasaki, S. et al., “Mechanism of the Smokeless Rich Diesel Combustion by Reducing Temperature,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-0655, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-01-0655.
- Teh, K., Miller, S., and Edwards, C., “Thermodynamic requirements for maximum internal combustion engine cycle efficiency. Part 1: optimal combustion strategy”, Int. J. Engine Res., Vol. 9, 2008, pp.449-65, doi:10.1243/14680874JER01508.
- Teh, K., Miller, S., and Edwards, C., “Thermodynamic requirements for maximum internal combustion engine cycle efficiency. Part 2: work extraction and reactant preparation strategies”, Int. J. Engine Res., Vol. 9, 2008, pp.467-81, doi:10.1243/14680874JER01608.
- Shibata, G. and Urushihara, T., “Stabilizations of High Temperature Heat Release CA50 and Combustion Period against Engine Load with the Dosage of Toluene in Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0575, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0575.