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Evaluating Particulate Emissions from a Flexible Fuel Vehicle with Direct Injection when Operated on Ethanol and Iso-butanol Blends
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 13, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The relationship between ethanol and iso-butanol fuel concentrations and vehicle particulate matter emissions was investigated. This study utilized a gasoline direct injection (GDI) flexible fuel vehicle (FFV) with wall-guided fueling system tested with four fuels, including E10, E51, E83, and an iso-butanol blend at a proportion of 55% by volume. Emission measurements were conducted over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) driving cycle on a chassis dynamometer with an emphasis on the physical and chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) emissions. The results indicated that the addition of higher ethanol blends and the iso-butanol blend resulted in large reductions in PM mass, soot, and total and solid particle number emissions. PM emissions for the baseline E10 fuel were characterized by a higher fraction of elemental carbon (EC), whereas the PM emissions for the higher ethanol blends were more organic carbon (OC) in nature. The higher ethanol blends and the iso-butanol blend showed lower concentrations of accumulation mode particles and size distributions shifted to smaller particle sizes compared to E10. In addition, the majority of trace elements and metals showed clear reductions with increasing alcohol content into gasoline.
- George Karavalakis - University of California
- Daniel Short - University of California
- Vincent Chen - University of California
- Carlos Espinoza - University of California
- Tyler Berte - University of California
- Thomas Durbin - University of California
- Akua Asa-Awuku - University of California
- Heejung Jung - University of California
- Leonidas Ntziachristos - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
- Stavros Amanatidis - Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
- Alexander Bergmann - Instrumentation and Control Systems
CitationKaravalakis, G., Short, D., Chen, V., Espinoza, C. et al., "Evaluating Particulate Emissions from a Flexible Fuel Vehicle with Direct Injection when Operated on Ethanol and Iso-butanol Blends," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2768, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2768.
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