This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Validation Study for the Introduction of an Aerodynamic Development Process of Heavy Trucks
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 30, 2014 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A challenge for the aerodynamic optimization of trucks is the limited availability of wind tunnels for testing full scale trucks. FAW wants to introduce a development process which is mainly based on CFD simulation in combination with some limited amount of wind tunnel testing. While maturity of CFD simulation for truck aerodynamics has been demonstrated in recent years, a complete validation is still required before committing to a particular process. A 70% scale model is built for testing in the Shanghai Automotive Wind Tunnel Center (SAWTC). Drag and surface pressures are measured for providing a good basis for comparison to the simulation results. The simulations are performed for the truck in the open road driving condition as well as in an initial digital model of the aerodynamic wind tunnel of SAWTC. A full size truck is also simulated in the open road driving condition to understand the scaling effect. As a 70% scale model of a heavy truck is seen to be close to the limits of the SAWTC wind tunnel, an attempt is made to understand possible wind tunnel effects by including an approximate geometry of the wind tunnel in the simulations of the scale model.
CitationSun, S., Chang, Y., Wang, X., Fu, Q. et al., "Validation Study for the Introduction of an Aerodynamic Development Process of Heavy Trucks," SAE Technical Paper 2014-01-2444, 2014, https://doi.org/10.4271/2014-01-2444.
- Hucho, W.-H., “Aerodynamics of Road Vehicles”, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., Warrendale, P., ISBN 978-0-7680-0029-0, 1998.
- Kopp, S., “The Aerodynamic Development of the New MAN Trucks TGX & TGS”, FISITA 2008/F2008-04-001.
- Heinecke, M., Beedy, J., Horrigan, K., and Sengupta, R., “Aerodynamic Study of a Production Tractor Trailer Combination using Simulation and Wind Tunnel Methods,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2040, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2040.
- Sengupta, R., Beedy, J., and Horrigan, K., “Combined Analysis of Cooling Airflow and Aerodynamic Drag for a Class 8 Tractor Trailer Combination,” SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 4(1):263-274, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-2288.
- Horrigan, K., Duncan, B., Sivakumar, P., Gupta, A. et al., “Aerodynamic Simulations of a Class 8 Heavy Truck: Comparison to Wind Tunnel Results and Investigation of Blockage Influences,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-4295, 2007, doi:10.4271/2007-01-4295.
- Horrigan, K., Duncan, B., Keating, A., Gupta, A. et al., “Aerodynamic Simulations of a Generic Tractor-Trailer: Validation and Analysis of Unsteady Aerodynamics,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-2612, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-2612.
- Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice “SAE Wind Tunnel Test Procedure for Trucks and Buses”, SAE Standard J1252, Rev. July 2014.
- Summary of SAWTC performance characteristics and correlation tests, SAWTC customer conference, 2011.
- Cooper, K., “The Effect of Front-Edge Rounding and Rear-Edge Shaping on the Aerodynamic Drag of Bluff Vehicles in Ground Proximity,” SAE Technical Paper 850288, 1985, doi:10.4271/850288.
- Chen S. and Doolen G. D., “Lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flows”, Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 30:329-364, 1998.
- Succi S., The Lattice Boltzmann Equation for Fluid Dynamics and Beyond, Series Numerical Mathematics and Scientific Computation, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2001.
- d'Humieres D., Lallemand P. and Qian Y. H., “Lattice BGK models for Navier-Stokes equations”, Europhysics Letters, 17(6):479-484, 1992.
- Yakhot V., and Orszag S.A., “Renormalization Group Analysis of Turbulence. I. Basic Theory” J. Sci. Comput., 1(2), 3-51, 1986.
- Yakhot V., V., Orszag S.A., Thangam S., Gatski T., and Speziale C., “Development of turbulence models for shear flows by a double expansion technique”, Phys. Fluids A, 4 (7), 1510-1520, 1992.
- Guidelines for Aerodynamic Assessment of Medium and Heavy Commercial Ground Vehicles Using Computational Fluid Dynamics, SAE Standard J2966.
- Fischer, O., Kuthada, T., Mercker, E., Wiedemann, J. et al., “CFD Approach to Evaluate Wind-Tunnel and Model Setup Effects on Aerodynamic Drag and Lift for Detailed Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0760, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0760.
- Cyr, S., Ih, K., and Park, S., “Accurate Reproduction of Wind-Tunnel Results with CFD,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-0158, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-01-0158.