This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Technical Assessment of Emission and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential from Two and Three Wheelers in India
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published January 09, 2013 by The Automotive Research Association of India in India
Annotation ability available
The large fleet share and rapid growth of two and three wheeler vehicles in India means that careful attention must be paid to reducing emissions and fuel consumption from these vehicles. Emission standards and emission control technologies employed in passenger vehicles have not fully migrated to two and three wheelers. Fuel economy standards and advanced fuel efficient technologies, which offer great potential for reducing sector energy consumption, have also not been implemented for this important mode of transportation. This paper contains an overview of the engine technology changes and after-treatment systems being employed by Indian two and three-wheeler manufacturers to meet the Bharat Stage-III emission standards. An assessment of technical options to meet future emission standards is discussed. Adoption of evaporative emissions and on-board diagnostic systems technologies are discussed as well. Finally, the paper presents a wide array of potential technologies for reducing fuel consumption of two and three wheelers along with an estimation of fuel consumption reductions possible and preliminary cost estimates.
|Progress In Technology||Emission Control and Fuel Economy for Port and Direct Injected SI Engines|
|Technical Paper||Development of Mitsubishi Flexible Fuel Vehicle|
|Technical Paper||Venturi Vacuum Transducer Enables Heavy EGR Control|
CitationIyer, N., Posada, F., and Bandivadekar, A., "Technical Assessment of Emission and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential from Two and Three Wheelers in India," SAE Technical Paper 2013-26-0050, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-26-0050.
- “Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers”, Domestic Sales Trend. 2012 August 27, 2012 [cited 2012 August 27].
- Iyer N V, “A Technical Assessment of Emissions and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential from Two and Three Wheelers in India”. Prepared for: the International Council on Clean Transportation, 2012: Washington DC.
- ICCT, Managing Motorcyles: Oportunities to Reduce Pollution and Fuel Use from Two- and Three- Wheeled Vehicles, Kamakate F., Editor 2009.
- ICCT, Roadmap Model, 2012, International Council on Clean Transportation: Washington DC.
- ECE, U N, “Global Technical Regulation No. 2. Measurement Procedure for Two-Wheeled Motorcycles Equiped with a Positive or Compresion Ignition Engine with Regard to the Emission of Gaseous Pollujtants”, CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption, 2005, United Nations.
- ECE U N, “Agreement Concerning the Establishing of Global Technical Regulations for Wheeled Vehicles”, Equipment and Parts which Can Be Fitted and/or Be Used on Wheeled Vehicles, 1998, United Nations.
- Hooper P, Al-Shemmeri T and Goodwin M, “Advanced Modern Low-Emission Two-Stroke Cycle Engines”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, 2011. 225(11): p. 1531-1543.
- Lorenz N, Bauer T and Willson B, “Design of a Direct Injection Retrofit Kit for Small Two-Stroke Engines”, 2005.
- Leighton S and Ahern S, “Fuel Economy Advantages on Indian 2-stroke and 4-stroke Motorcycles Fitted with Direct Fuel Injection”, SAE Paper No. 2003-26-0019, 2003, doi:10.4271/2003-26-0019.
- Colombo P, “Closed Loop Controlled Electronic Carburation System”, 2010, SAE Paper No. 2010-32-0115, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-32-0115.
- Cathcart, G., Houston R., and Ahern S., “The Potential of Gasoline Direct Injection for Small Displacement four Stroke Motorcycle Applications”, 2004, SAE Paper No. 2004-32-0098, 2004, doi:10.4271/2004-32-0098.
- Palke D R and Tyo M A, “The Impact of Catalytic Aftertreatment on Particulate Matter Emissions from Small Motorcycles”, 1999, SAE Paper No. 1999-01-3299, 1999, doi:10.4271/1999-01-3299.
- Alive K, Tran P and Honorato R L, “Advanced Cost Effective Catalyst Technology for Emission Control of Two Wheelers”, 2008, SAE Paper No. 2008-36-0267, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-36-0267.
- Seifert S, et al, “Benefits of LS-Design,Ñ¢, a Structured Metal Foil for Two and Three Wheelers Catalyst Substrates”, to Minimize Catalyst Volumes, PGM Loads and the Route Towards Low NOx Emissions, 2011, SAE Paper No. 2011-28-0042, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-28-0042.
- Bajaj Bajaj RE Diesel. 2012; Available from: http://www.bajajauto.com/comm_psngr_re_diesel.asp
- Kaleemuddin S and Rao G A P, “Development of Automotive DI Diesel Engine to Comply with Stringent Emission Norms”, International Journal of Power and Energy Conversion, 2012. 3(3): p. 235-252 %U http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJPEC.2012.048041.
- Geivanidis S, et al, “Study on Possible New Measures Concerning Motorcycle Emissions”, Arisotle University Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2008.
- Xie H, et al, “A Micro-Controller Based Control Unit for Motorcycle Engines to Meet Emission and OBD requirements”, 2006.
- Meszler D, “Air Emissions Issues Related to Two and Three-Wheeled Motor Vehicles”, International Council on Clean Transportation, Washington, DC, 2007.
- Winkler F, et al, “Strategies to Reduce Scavenge Losses of Small Capacity 2-Stroke Engines”, Pressurized by the Common Market Costs. SAE Paper No. 2005-32-0098, 2005, doi:10.4271/32-0098.
- Society of Indian Automotive Manufacturers (SIAM). Fuel Economy Data - Two Wheelers. 2011 [cited 2012; Available from: http://www.siamonline.in/Fuel_Economy/2W-FE-Data.pdf
- CMRV, Standards for Petrol/Diesel Engined Vehicles, Chapter X, Type III Test: Description of the Ageing Test for Verifying the Durability of Anti-Pollution Devices from Two and Three-Wheelers, 2011, Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (MoRTH).
- Archer M and Bell G, “Advanced Electronic Fuel Injection Systems - An Emissions Solution for Both 2 - and 4 - Stroke Small Vehicle Engines”, SAE Paper No. 2001-26-0010, 2001, 2001, doi:10.4271/2001-26-0010.
- Sundar D, et al, “Electronic Control of Air/Fuel Ratios in a Carburettor for 2-Wheeler Application”, SAE Paper No. 2008-28-0057, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-28-0057.
- Bike India. Bike India - Two-wheeler magazine. [cited 2011; Available from: http://www.bikeindia.in.
- Committee on the Assessment of Technologies for Improving Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel, E., Assessment of Fuel Economy Technologies for Light-Duty Vehicles2011: Natl Academy Pr.
- Iijima S, Kubota R and Kikuchi K, “Development of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Small Motorcycle Engines”, SAE Paper No. 2009-32-0083, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-32-0083.
- Zoli G, et al, “The Development of a Low Viscosity, Highly Efficient Lubricant for Sport Motorcycle Applications”, 2011, SAE International %U http://papers.sae.org/2011-32-0513: Warrendale, PA, doi:10.4271/2011-32-0513
- Watanabe N, Study of Lower Viscosity Motorcycle Engine Oils for Fuel Saving:, 2010, SAE Paper No. 2010-32-0123, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-32-0123