This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Influence of Ethanol-gasoline Blended Fuels on Cold Start Emissions of a Four-stroke Motorcycle. Methodology and Results
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 8, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ethanol-gasoline mixtures on cold emissive behavior of commercial motorcycles. For the newly sold motorcycles, equipped with a three-way catalyst and electronic mixture control, CO and HC cold additional emissions, if compared with those exhausted in hot conditions, represent an important proportion of total emissions. On the other hand, ethanol is known as potential alcohol alternative fuel for spark ignition engines, which can be blended with gasoline to increase oxygen content and then to decrease emissions. From this explanations, a research on cold start emissions of motorcycles using ethanol-gasoline mixtures was conducted. In this specific study, a motorcycle (belonging to the Euro-3 legislative category) was operated on a chassis dynamometer and driven according to the ECE driving cycle to analyze the exhaust cold extra emissions of CO and HC, while the ethanol was mixed with unleaded gasoline in three different percentages (10, 20 and 30 % v/v). Results of the tests and the application of a calculation procedure, designed to model the cold start transient behavior of motorcycles, indicate that CO and HC cold start extra emissions using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels decrease compared to the use of unleaded gasoline.
CitationIodice, P. and Senatore, A., "Influence of Ethanol-gasoline Blended Fuels on Cold Start Emissions of a Four-stroke Motorcycle. Methodology and Results," SAE Technical Paper 2013-24-0117, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-24-0117.
- Iodice, P., Cardone, M., Senatore, A., and Migliaccio, M., “Emission inventory for the road transport sector in the urban area of Naples: methodology and results,” Series: “The Alliance for Global Sustainability Bookseries”, Vol. 17 (2009), XXIV, 430p., Springer, Hardcover, ISBN: 978-90-481-3042-9
- European Commission, Directorate-General for Energy and Transport. EU energy and transport in figures e Statistical pocketbook 2009. See also. Luxembourg: Office for the Official Publications of the European communities
- Vasic, A.M., Weilemann, M., 2006. Comparison of realworld emissions from two-wheelers and passenger cars. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 149-154.
- Iodice, P., Prati, M., and Senatore, A., “A Calculation Procedure for the Evaluation of Cold Emissive Behavior of High-Performance Motorcycles,” SAE Technical Paper 2011-24-0200, 2011, doi:10.4271/2011-24-0200.
- Yao YC, Tsai JH, Chiang HL, Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on air pollutant emissions from motorcycle. Sci Total Environ 2009;407:5257-62.
- Jia LW, Shen MQ, Wang J, Lin MQ, “Influence of ethanol-gasoline blended fuel on emission characteristics from a four-stroke motorcycle engine,” J Hazard Mater 2005;123:29-34.
- Hsieh W.D., Chen R.H., Wu T.L., Lin T.H., Engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, Atmos. Environ. 36 (2002) 403-410.
- Abdel-Rahman, A.A., Osman, M.M., 1997 “Experimental investigation on varying the compression ratio of SI engine working under different ethanol-gasoline fuel blends,” International Journal of Energy Research 21, 31-40.
- He, B.Q. Wang, J.X. Hao, J.M. Yan, X.G. Xiao, J.H. A study on emission characteristics of an EFI engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels, Atmos. Environ. 37 (2003) 949-957.
- Al-Hasan M., “Effect of ethanol-unleaded gasoline blends on engine performance and exhaust emission,” Energy Convers Manage 2003;44:1547-61.
- Yang Hsi-Hsien, Liu Ta-Chuan, Chang Chia-Feng, Lee Eva, “Effects of ethanol-blended gasoline on emissions of regulated air pollutants and carbonyls from motorcycles,” Applied Energy 89 (2012) 281-286
- Iodice, P., Senatore, A., Meccariello, G., and Prati, M., “Methodology for the analysis of a 4-stroke moped emission behaviour,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(2):617-626, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-24-0142.
- Iodice, P., and Senatore, A., “Caratterizzazione del comportamento emissivo dei motocicli in diverse condizioni di funzionamento: transitorio a freddo e miscele benzina-etanolo,” 67° Congresso Nazionale ATI Trieste, 11-14 Settembre 2012, ISBN: 978-88-907676-0-9
- Weilenmann M.F., “Cold Start and cold ambient Emissions of Euro II cars,” Proceedings 10th Int. Symp., 2001, Transport and Air Pollution, Boulder, USA.
- Weilenmann M., Soltic P. & Steffen, D. “Cold Start Emissions at Cold Ambient Temperatures from Euro-0 to Euro-3 Light Duty Vehicles,” - 11th int. symp. Transport and Air Pollution, 2002, Graz, Proceedings Volume II, pp. 365-382, Graz University of Technology.
- Joumard, R., “Modelling of cold start emissions for passenger cars”, 1999, INRETS report, LTE 9931, Bron, France, 86p
- “ARTEMIS, Assessment And Reliability Of Transport Emission Models And Inventory Systems”, Workpackage 1300, Final Report and Dissemination, 2007, TRL Unpublished Report UPR/IE/044/07
- Aulich, T.R., He, X.M., Grisanti, A.A., Knudson, C.L., 1994, “Gasoline evaporation-ethanol and nonethanol blends,” Journal of Air and Waste Management Association 44, 1004-1009.
- Carlos Luis Sales Monteiro, Sodré José Ricardo, “Cold start emissions of an ethanol-fuelled engine with heated intake air and fuel,” Fuel 95 (2012) 122-125
- Iodice, P. and Senatore, A., “Analysis of a Scooter Emission Behavior in Cold and Hot Conditions: Modelling and Experimental Investigations,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0881, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-0881.