This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Solutions of Hybrid Energy-Optimal Control for Model-based Calibrations of HEV Powertrains
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 08, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In this paper optimal control problems for hybrid powertrain vehicles with different drive-modes are considered and solved using numerical techniques. This leads to the formulation of hybrid optimal control problems. The aim is to find optimal controls and optimal switchings between the drive-modes to minimize a cost function resembling fuel consumption. The problem is nonlinear and subject to constraints concerning both controls and state. The techniques include indirect methods as well as direct optimization methods. Efficiency and accuracy are evaluated for all methods using simulation studies. An experimental test on a near mass-production vehicle confirms the usability of the direct optimization approach.
CitationBoehme, T., Frank, B., Schultalbers, M., Schori, M. et al., "Solutions of Hybrid Energy-Optimal Control for Model-based Calibrations of HEV Powertrains," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1747, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-1747.
- Schouten, N. J., Salman, M. A. and Kheir, N. A., “Energy management strategies for parallel hybrid vehicles using fuzzy logic,” Control Engineering Practice, Volume: 11, pp. 171-177, 2003.
- Sharer, P., Rousseau, A., Karbowski, D., and Pagerit, S., “Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Control Strategy: Comparison between EV and Charge-Depleting Options,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0460, 2008, doi: 10.4271/2008-01-0460.
- Liu, J. and Peng, H., “Modeling and Control of a Power-Split Hybrid Vehicle,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology 16(6): 1242-1251, November 2008, doi: 100.1109/TCST.2008.919447.
- Oh, K., Kim, J., Kim, J., Choi, D. and Kim, H., “Optimal Power Distribution Control for Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” IEEE International Conference on Vehicular Electronics and Safety 2005, pp. 79-85, 14.-16 Oct 2005.
- Borhan, H. A., Vahidi, A., Phillips, A. M., et.al., “Predictive Energy Management of a Power-Split Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” Proceedings of the American Control Conference, St. Louis, pp. 3970-3976, 2009.
- Paganelli, G., Guezennec, Y., and Rizzoni, G., “Optimizing Control Strategy for Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicle,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0102, 2002, doi: 10.4271/2002-01-0102.
- Sciaretta, A., Back, M. and Guzzella, L., “Optimal Control of Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles”, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, 12(3), pp. 352-363, May 2004, doi: 10.1109/TCST.2004.824312.
- Musardo, C., Rizzoni, G. and Staccia, B., “A-ECMS: An Adaptive Algorithm for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Energy Management” Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, pp. 1816-1823, 2005.
- Bryson, A. E., Ho, Y. C., “Applied Optimal Control: Optimization, Estimation and Control,” Taylor and Francis Inc., 1981.
- Berkovitz, L. D., “Optimal Control Theory,” Springer, New York, 1974.
- Neustadt, L. W., “Optimization: A Theory of Necessary Conditions,” Princeton University Press, 1976.
- Pontryagin, L. S., Boltyanskii, V. G., Gamkrelidze, R. V. and Mishchenko, E. F., “The Mathematical Theory of Optimal Processes,” John Wiley and Sons, 1962.
- Kirk, D. E., “Optimal Control Theory,” Dover Publications Inc., ISBN 0-486-43484-2, 1998.
- Bengea, S. C., DeCarlo, R. A., “Optimal and Suboptimal Control of Switching Systems,” Proceedings of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, Maui, Hawaii, pp. 5295-5300, 2003.
- Sager, S., “Numerical Methods for mixed-integer Optimal Control Problems,” Ph.D thesis, University Heidelberg, 2005.
- Shaikh, M. S., “Optimal control of hybrid systems: theory and algorithms,” Ph.D thesis, Dept. of Elect, and Comp. Eng., McGill University, Montreal, 2004.
- Cordon, B., “Comparative Analysis of Single and Combined Hybrid Electrically Variable Transmission Operating Modes,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1162, 2005, doi: 10.4271/2005-01-1162.
- Schmidt, M. R., “Two-Mode, Compound-Split, Electro-Mechanical Vehicular Transmission,” U.S. Patent 5 931 757, August 3, 1999.
- Liu, J. and Peng, H., “Control Optimization for a Power-Split Hybrid Vehicle”, Proceedings of the 2006 American Control Conference, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA, June 14-16, 2006.
- Lancaster, P. and Salkauskas, K., “Curve and Surface Fitting, An Introduction,” Academic Press, 1990, ISBN 0-12-436060-2.
- McLain, D. H., “Drawing contours from arbitrary data points”, Computation Journal, 17, pp. 318-324.
- Betts, J.T., “Practical Methods for Optimal Control and Estimation using Nonlinear Programming,” SIAM, Second Edition, ISBN 978-0898716-88-7, 2010.
- Nocedal, J. and Wright, S. J., “Numerical Optimization,” Second Edition, Springer Series in Operations Research, ISBN 13:978-0387-30303-1, 2006.
- Bengea, S., Uthaichana, K., Žefran, M. and DeCarlo. R. A., “Optimal Control of Switching Systems via Embedding into Continuous Optimal Control Problems,” The control System Handbook, Second Edition: Control System Advanced Methods, Editor Levine William S., Chapter 31, CRC Press, 2011, ISBN 13:978-1420073645.
- Land, A. H. and Doig, A. G., “An automatic method of solving discrete programming problems,” Econometrica, 28, pp. 497-520, 1960.
- Leyffer, S., “Complementarity constraints as nonlinear equations: Theory and numerical experience,” ANL/MCS-P1054-0603, MCS Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, 2003.
- Bock, H. G. and Plitt, K. J., “A multiple shooting algorithm for direct solution of optimal control problems,” Proceedings of the 9th IFAC World Conference, pp. 243-247, 1984.