This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
System Design and Control Strategy for a Battery/Supercapacitor Electric Bus with an Integrated Fast Charger/Bus Stop Station
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 08, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The purposes of this study are to 1) select a suitable size of dual energy sources, 2) develop a dynamic model for a battery/supercapacitor (SC) electric bus with an integrated fast charger/bus stop station, and 3) establish control strategies among the fast charger, batteries, and the SC module. For 1), a global search method was used to locate a suitable-sized battery set and SCs under a preset cost function and basic properties. The cost ratio (CR) was calculated to maximize the energy storage capacity.
For 2), 10 subsystems of the electric bus, including the driver maneuver, traction motor, the lithium battery module, the SCs, the onboard DC/DC converter, the longitudinal vehicle dynamics, accessories, and the transmission were constructed. For the fast charger/bus stop station, an AC/DC inverter was modeled. All modulized subsystems were then integrated into the vehicle/station simulator.
For 3), the 10-mode control strategy properly conducts energy management using rule-based control laws, which are functions of vehicle speed, state-of charges (SOCs) of dual energy sources, and driving conditions. The control output section delivers the commands to the subsystem controllers, relays, and converters/inverters. The fast charger/bus stop station charges batteries and SCs when proper commands were sent by the vehicle control unit (VCU). All simulation results demonstrate that the optimized sizing of dual energy sources, electric bus and charger dynamics, and VCU control strategies were successfully completed. The feasibility study and specification design of Taiwan's E-Bus with a fast-charge station will be conducted through this study in the near future.
CitationHung, Y., Li, H., Lee, H., Chen, C. et al., "System Design and Control Strategy for a Battery/Supercapacitor Electric Bus with an Integrated Fast Charger/Bus Stop Station," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1459, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-1459.
- Kesler, S. E., Gruber, P. W., Medina, P. A., Keoleian, G. A., Everson, M. P., and Wallington, T. J., “Global lithium resources: Relative importance of pegmatite, brine and other deposits”, Ore Geology Reviews, 2012.
- Midrouillet, P. and Sirier, D., “Recharging Station and Related Electric Vehicle,” U.S. patent WO2007045792, Nov. 2008.
- Sheu, K. B., “Simulation for the analysis of a hybrid electric scooter powertrain,” Applied Energy 85:589-606, 2008; doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2007.09.002.
- Erdinc, O., Vural, B., and Uzunoglu, M., “A wavelet-fuzzy logic based energy management strategy for a fuel cell/battery/ultra-capacitor hybrid vehicular power system,” J Power Sources 194:369-80, 2009; doi: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.04.072.
- Paganelli, G., Guezennec, Y., and Rizzoni, G., “Optimizing Control Strategy for Hybrid Fuel Cell Vehicle,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0102, 2002, doi:10.4271/2002-01-0102.
- Lin, C.C., Peng, H, Grizzle, J.W., and Kang, J.M., “Power management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric truck,” IEEE Trans on Control Sys Tech. 11:839-49, 2003.
- Wu, X., Cao, B., Li, X., Xu, J., and Ren, X., “Component sizing optimization of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,” Applied Energy 88: 799-804, 2011; doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2010.08.018.
- http://www.ctts.nrel.gov/analysis/advisor.html, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Department of Energy (DOE), 2002.
- http://www.transportation.anl.gov/modeling_simulation/PSAT/index.html, Argonne Lab., Department of Energy (DOE), 2012.
- Fathy, H.K., Reyer, J.A., Papalambros, P.Y., Ulsoy, A.G., “On the coupling between the plant and coupling optimization problems,” Proc of the American Control Conference, Arlington, VA, June; 2001.
- http://www.hongkongextras.com/busservices.html, Hong Kong Extras, 2012.
- http://proterrawind.com/index.asp, Protera Inc., 2012.
- Hung Y. H., et al., “Novel System Designs and Controller Development for a New-type Dual-Hybrid Electric Vehicle”, The 24th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, Stavanger, Norway, 2009.
- Wu C. H., “Specification Development and Real-Time Simulation of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle,” Industrial Technology Research Institute Press., April, 2009.
- Chang C. C., Lee H. C., Li H. W., Hung Y. H., Chen C. A., Lu Y. F., “Modeling and Design of a Novel E-bus with Fast Charging system,” The 17th National Conference on Vehicle Engineering, Nov., Taiwan, 2012.