This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Optical and Infrared In-Situ Measurements of EGR Cooler Fouling
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 08, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in internal combustion engines has significant impacts on combustion and emissions. EGR can be used to reduce in-cylinder NOx production, reduce emitted particulate matter, and enable advanced forms of combustion. To maximize the benefits of EGR, the exhaust gases are often cooled with on-engine liquid to gas heat exchangers. A common problem with this approach is the build-up of a fouling layer inside the heat exchanger due to thermophoresis and condensation, reducing the effectiveness of the heat exchanger in lowering gas temperatures.
Literature has shown the effectiveness to initially drop rapidly and then approach steady state after a variable amount of time. The asymptotic behavior of the effectiveness has not been well explained. A range of theories have been proposed including fouling layer removal, changing fouling layer properties, and cessation of thermophoresis. In an effort to investigate this phenomenon, an EGR cooler visualization rig has been constructed. This rig incorporates an optically and infrared transparent access window, allowing for measurement of key deposit layer variables in-situ. These variables coupled with heat flux measurements will allow for the calculation of thermal properties of the deposit layer as a function of deposit thickness, engine condition, and emissions levels.
Initial results have shown a linear growth in deposit layer thickness over a 24 hour deposition interval with a nonlinear change in deposit surface temperature. These results potentially identify a change in properties of the deposit layer. In addition, the surface area ratio of the deposit layer increases significantly as the deposit thickness increases and could be significant for heat transfer.
This paper describes the visualization rig, methodology for in-situ measurements, and initial results.
- Ashwin A. Salvi - Univ. of Michigan-Ann Arbor
- John Hoard - Univ. of Michigan-Ann Arbor
- Pavan Karthik Jagarlapudi - Univ. of Michigan-Ann Arbor
- Theera Pornphaithoonsakun - Univ. of Michigan-Ann Arbor
- Kevin Collao - Univ. of Michigan-Ann Arbor
- Daniel J. Styles - Ford Motor Co.
- Mehdi Abarham - Ford Motor Co.
- Eric W. Curtis - Ford Motor Co.
- Dennis N. Assanis - Stony Brook Univ.
CitationSalvi, A., Hoard, J., Jagarlapudi, P., Pornphaithoonsakun, T. et al., "Optical and Infrared In-Situ Measurements of EGR Cooler Fouling," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1289, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-1289.
- Chang , D. and Van Gerpen , J. Determination of Particulate and Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesel SAE Technical Paper 982527 1998 10.4271/982527
- Janssen , A. , Muether , M. , Pischinger , S. , Kolbeck , A. et al. Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1811 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1811
- Knothe , G. , Sharp , C.A. , Ryanlii , T.W. Exhaust emissions of biodiesel, petrodiesel, neat methyl esters, and alkanes in a new technology engine Energy and Fuels 2006 20 1 403 408
- Northrop , W. , Bohac , S. , and Assanis , D. Premixed Low Temperature Combustion of Biodiesel and Blends in a High Speed Compression Ignition Engine SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2 1 28 40 2009 10.4271/2009-01-0133
- Hoard , J. , Abarham , M. , Styles , D. , Giuliano , J. et al. Diesel EGR Cooler Fouling SAE Int. J. Engines 1 1 1234 1250 2009 10.4271/2008-01-2475
- Hoard , J. , Giuliano , J. , Styles , D. , Sluder , S. , Storey , J. , Lewis , S. , Strzelec , A. , Lance , M. EGR Catalyst for Cooler Fouling Reduction DOE Diesel Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Reduction 2007 Detroit, MI http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/resources/proceedings/2007_deer_presentations.html
- Lepperhoff , G. , Houben , M. Mechanisms of Deposit Formation in Internal Combustion Engines and Heat Exchangers 1993
- Zhan , R. , Eakle , S. , Miller , J. , and Anthony , J. EGR System Fouling Control SAE Int. J. Engines 1 1 59 64 2009 10.4271/2008-01-0066
- Heywood , J. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals 1st McGraw-Hill New York 1988
- Sluder , C. and Storey , J. EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation: Effects of Biodiesel Blends SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-2473 2008 10.4271/2008-01-2473
- Sluder , C. , Storey , J. , Lewis , S. , Styles , D. et al. Hydrocarbons and Particulate Matter in EGR Cooler Deposits: Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Coolant Temperature, and Oxidation Catalyst SAE Int. J. Engines 1 1 1196 1204 2009 10.4271/2008-01-2467
- Sluder , C. , Storey , J. , and Youngquist , A. ULSD and B20 Hydrocarbon Impacts on EGR Cooler Performance and Degradation SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-2802 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2802
- Styles , D. , Curtis , E. , Ramesh , N. , Hoard , J. , Assanis , D. , Abarham , M. , Sluder , S. , Storey , J. , Lance , M. Factors Impacting EGR Cooler Fouling - Main Effects and Interactions 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emission Research Conference 2010 Detroit, MI
- Nishiwaki , K. , Hafnan , M. The Determination of Thermal Properties of Engine Combustion Chamber Deposits 2000 10.4271/2000-01-1215
- Cheng , S. The Impacts of Engine Operating Conditions and Fuel Compositions on the Formation of Combustion Chamber Deposits SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2025 2000 10.4271/2000-01-2025
- Abarham , M. , Hoard , J. , Assanis , D. , Styles , D. et al. Review of Soot Deposition and Removal Mechanisms in EGR Coolers SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3 1 690 704 2010 10.4271/2010-01-1211
- Teng , H. and Regner , G. Particulate Fouling in EGR Coolers SAE Int. J. Commer. Veh. 2 2 154 163 2010 10.4271/2009-01-2877
- Abarham , M. , Hoard , J.W. , Assanis , D. , Styles , D. , Sluder , C.S. , Storey , J.M.E. An analytical study of thermophoretic particulate deposition in turbulent pipe flows Aerosol Science and Technology 2010 44 785 795
- Abarham , M. Investigation of Nano-Particulate Transport in Non-Isothermal Turbulent Internal Flows Ph.D. dissertation University of Michigan Ann Arbor 2011
- Mehravaran , M. and Brereton , G. Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Stabilization on Cooled Surfaces SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-2183 2011 10.4271/2011-01-2183
- Warey , A. , Balestrino , S. , Szymkowicz , P. , Malayeri , M.R. A one-dimensional model for particulate deposition and hydrocarbon condensation in exhaust gas recirculation coolers Aerosol Science and Technology 46 2 198 213
- Paz , M.C. , Suárez , E. , Eiris , A. , Porteiro , J. Development of a predictive CFD fouling model for diesel engine exhaust gas systems Proceedings of International Conference on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning 2011 Crete Island, Greece
- Völk , P. , Wachtmeister , G. , Hörning , G. , Niessner , R. Deposition mechanisms in exhaust heat exchangers MTZ 2012 73 58 64
- Abarham , M. , Hoard , J. , Assanis , D. , Styles , D. et al. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Investigations of EGR Cooler Fouling in a Diesel Engine SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1506 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1506
- Abarham , M. , Hoard , J. , Assanis , D. , Styles , D. et al. Modeling of Thermophoretic Soot Deposition and Hydrocarbon Condensation in EGR Coolers SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2 1 921 931 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1939
- Lance , M. , Sluder , C. , Wang , H. , and Storey , J. Direct Measurement of EGR Cooler Deposit Thermal Properties for Improved Understanding of Cooler Fouling SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1461 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1461
- Storey , J.M.E. , Sluder , C.S. , Lance , M.J. , Styles , D. , Simko , S. Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler Fouling in Diesel Applications: Fundamental Studies, Deposit Properties and Microstructure International Conference on Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning IX 2011 Crete, Greece
- Incropera , F. , DeWitt , D. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer 5th John Wiley & Sons, Inc 2002
- The ultimate infrared handbook for R&D professionals FLIR
- Minkina , W. , Dudzik , S. Infrared Thermography: Errors and Uncertainties John Wiley & Sons, Ltd 2009
- Abarham , M. , Chafekar , T. , Salvi , A. , Hoard , J.W. , Styles , D. , Scott Sluder , C. , Assanis , D. In-situ visualization of exhaust soot particle deposition and removal in channel flows Chemical Engineering Science 2013 87 0 359 370
- Abarham , M. , Chafekar , T. , Hoard , J. , Styles , D. et al. A Visualization Test Setup for Investigation of Water-Deposit Interaction in a Surrogate Rectangular Cooler Exposed to Diesel Exhaust Flow SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0364 2012 10.4271/2012-01-0364
- Hoard , J. , Chafekar , T. , Abarham , M. , Schwader , R. , Uplegger , S. , Styles , D. Large particles in modern diesel engine exhaust ASME 2012 Internal combustion engine division spring technical conference (ICES 2012) 2012 Torino, Italy ASME ASME ICES2012-81232