This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Analysis of Transient Compressible Gas Jets Using High Speed Schlieren Imaging
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 08, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Transient compressible gas jets, as encountered in direct injection gas fuel engines, have been examined using Schlieren visualization. Helium has been injected into air in a pressure chamber to create the jets examined. The structure of the jets is studied from the mean and coefficient of variation of the penetration length, jet width and jet angle. The quantities are calculated by digital image processing of Schlieren images captured with a high-speed camera. Injection pressure and chamber pressure have been varied to determine whether they have an effect on the response variables. Design of experiments methods have been used to develop the scheme employed in performing the experiments. The mean normalized penetration length of the jets is found to scale with injection to chamber pressure ratio and is in agreement with a momentum conserving relation given in the literature. The dispersion of the penetration length has been found to be in agreement with a normal distribution. The Turner model for a jet has been found to be in agreement with the observed jets. The jet has been observed to transition to self-similarity within 20 nozzle diameters. The calculated penetration constant Γ has been observed to vary with the pressure ratio and is smaller than previously reported values. The jet angle approaches a constant value for all cases and has also been found to be in approximate agreement with a normal distribution.
CitationJohansen, L., de Benito Sienes, E., and Dahlander, P., "Analysis of Transient Compressible Gas Jets Using High Speed Schlieren Imaging," SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-0871, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-0871.
- Heywood, J.B., “Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals”, McGraw-Hill, ISBN 0-07-100499-8, 1988.
- Verhelst, S. and Wallner, T., “Hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 35(6):490-527, 2009, doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2009.08.001.
- Korakianitis, T., Namasivayam, A.M. and Crookes, R.J., “Natural-gas fuelled spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine performance and emissions”, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 37:89-112, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.pecs.2010.04.002.
- Mohammadi, A., Shioji, M., Matsui, Y. and Kajiwara, R., “Spark-Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of High-Pressure Hydrogen and Natural-Gas Intermittent Jets”, Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 130(6):1-7, 2008, doi: 10.1115/1.2938271.
- Song, L. and Abraham, J., “Entrainment Characteristics of Transient Turbulent Round, Radial and Wall-Impinging Jets: Theoretical Deductions”, Journal of Fluids Engineering 125:605-612, 2003, doi: 10.1115/1.1593707.
- Hill, P.G., and Ouellette, P., “Transient Turbulent Gaseous Fuel Jets for Diesel Engines”, ASME J. Fluids Eng. 121:93-101, 1999, doi: 10.1115/1.2822018.
- Ricou, F. P. and Spalding, D. B., “Measurements of entrainment by axisymmetrical turbulent jets”, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 11:21-32, 1961, doi: 10.1017/S0022112061000834.
- Rizk, W., “Experimental Studies of the Mixing Processes and Flow Configurations in Two-Cycle Engine Scavenging”, Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, 172(1):417-437, 1958 doi: 10.1243/PIME_PROC_1958_172_037_02.
- Ouellette, P., and Hill, P.G., “Turbulent Transient Gas Injections”, ASME J. Fluids Eng. 122:743-753, 2000, doi: 10.1115/1.1319845.
- Petersen, B. and Ghandhi, J., “Transient High-Pressure Hydrogen Jet Measurements,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-0652, 2006, doi:10.4271/2006-01-0652.
- Petersen, B.R., “Transient High-Pressure Hydrogen Jet Measurements”, M.Sc. thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2006.
- Naber, J. and Siebers, D., “Effects of Gas Density and Vaporization on Penetration and Dispersion of Diesel Sprays,” SAE Technical Paper 960034, 1996, doi: 10.4271/960034.
- Baert, R., Klaassen, A., and Doosje, E., “Direct Injection of High Pressure Gas: Scaling Properties of Pulsed Turbulent Jets,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(2):383-395, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2253.
- Ouellette, P., “Direct Injection of Natural Gas For Diesel Engine Fueling”, Ph.D. Thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1996.
- Chepakovich, A. C., “Visualization of Transient Single- and Two-Phase Jets Created by Diesel Engine Injectors”, M.Sc. Thesis, Mechanical Engineering Department, The Unviersity of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1993.
- Settles, G.S., “Schlieren and Shadowgraph Techniques”, Springer-Verlag, ISBN 978-3-540-66155-9, 2001.
- Ciddor, P.E., “Refractive index of air: new equations for the visible and near infrared”, Appl. Opt. 35:1566-1573 1996, doi: 10.1364/AO.35.001566.
- Mansfield, C.R. and Peck, E.R., “Dispersion of Helium” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59:199-203, 1969, doi: 10.1364/JOSA.59.000199.
- Montgomery, D.C., “Design and Analysis of Experiments”, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-39882-1, 2009.