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Vehicular Emissions in Review
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 08, 2013 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Johnson, T., "Vehicular Emissions in Review," SAE Int. J. Engines 6(2):699-715, 2013, https://doi.org/10.4271/2013-01-0538.
This review paper summarizes major developments in vehicular emissions regulations and technologies (light-duty, heavy-duty, gasoline, diesel) in 2012. First, the paper covers the key regulatory developments in the field, including finalized criteria pollutant tightening in California; and in Europe, the development of real-world driving emissions (RDE) standards. The US finalized LD (light-duty) greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation for 2017-25. The paper then gives a brief, high-level overview of key developments in LD and HD engine technology, covering both gasoline and diesel. Marked improvements in engine efficiency are summarized for gasoline and diesel engines to meet both the emerging NOx and GHG regulations. HD engines are just starting to demonstrate 50% brake thermal efficiency. NOx control technologies are then summarized, including SCR (selective catalytic reduction) with ammonia, and hydrocarbon-based approaches. Emphasis is on low-temperature deNOx, durability, and cost reduction. PM (particulate matter) reduction technologies are evolving around SCR integration and the behavior of soot and ash deposits. Next, DOC (diesel oxidation catalyst) developments are summarized. They mainly involve better understanding of aging and substitution of base metals oxides for precious metal. The paper then discusses some key developments in gasoline emission controls, focusing on new coated GPF (gasoline particulate filter) understanding. Advanced three-way catalysts improve with layered coating technology, and with improved understanding on engine calibration.