This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
An Integrated Helmet and Neck Support (iHANS) for Racing Car Drivers: A Biomechanical Feasibility Study
Published October 29, 2012 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
A new form of head and neck protection for racing car drivers is examined. The concept is one whereby the helmet portion of the system is attached, by way of a quick release clamp, to a collar-like platform which is supported on the driver's shoulders. The collar, which encircles the back and sides of the driver's neck, is held in place by way of the on-board restraint belts. The interior of the helmet portion of the assembly is large enough to provide adequate volitional head motion. The overall objective of the design is to remove the helmet from the wearer's head and thereby to mitigate the deleterious features of helmet wearing such as neck fatigue, poor ventilation and aerodynamic buffeting. Just as importantly, by transferring the weight of the helmet and all attendant reaction forces associated with inertial and impact loads to the shoulder complex (instead of to the neck), reduced head and neck injury probability should be achievable.
This paper describes the concept development and the evolution of various prototype designs. Prototypes have been evaluated on track and sled tested in accordance with contemporary head neck restraint systems practice. Also discussed is a series of direct impact tests. In addition, low mass high velocity ballistic tests have been conducted and are reviewed herein.
It is concluded that this new concept indeed does address most of the drawbacks of the customary helmet and that it generally can reduce the probability of head and neck injury.
CitationNewman, J., Withnall, C., and Wonnacott, M., "An Integrated Helmet and Neck Support (iHANS) for Racing Car Drivers: A Biomechanical Feasibility Study," SAE Technical Paper 2012-22-0013, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-22-0013.
- Anctil , B. , Keown , M. , Bourget , D. , and Pageau , G. 2005 A Novel Test Methodology to Assess the Performance of Ballistic Helmets 22nd International Symposium on Ballistics Vancouver, Canada
- Federation Internationale de l'Automobile FIA 8860-2004 Advanced Helmet Test Specification
- Foster , J.K. , Kortge , J.O. and Wolanin , M.J. 1977 Hybrid III - A Biomechanically-Based Crash Test Dummy Proc. 21 st Stapp car Crash Conference 973 1014 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale PA
- Gohmert , D. M. 2012 Personal communication re helmets for Orion crew members
- Gramling , H. 2012 Personal communication regarding FIA sponsored ATD neck development
- Grohs , T. M. and Archer , S. 2000 Head Impact Protection Developments in the F1 Cockpit with Investigations to Correlate Head Movement to Brain Injury SAE Technical paper 2000-01-3558 Motorsports Engineering Conference and Exposition Dearborn, MI
- Haffner , M. , Eppinger , R. , Rangarajan , N. , Shams , T. , Artis , M. and Beach , D. 2001 Foundations and Elements of the NHTSA THOR Alpha ATD Design 17 th ESV Conference Amsterdam
- Hubbard , R. P. 1987 Neck Protection Device with Occupant of a High Performance Vehicle US Patent No. 4568510
- King , A. I. , Yang , K. H. , Zhang and Hardy , W. 2003 Is Head Injury Caused by Linear or Angular Acceleration? Proc. International IRCOBI Conference Lisbon
- Melvin , J.W. 1988 The Engineering Design, Development, Testing and Evaluation of an Advanced Anthropomorphic Test Device, Phase 1: Concept Definition US Department of Transportation, DoT-HS-807-224
- Melvin , J. W. , Baron , K.J. , Little , W.C. , Gideon , T.W. , Pierce , J. 1998 Biomechanical Analysis of Indy Car Crashes Proc. 42 nd Stapp Car Crash Conference 247 266 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale PA
- Melvin , J.W. 2012 Personal communication re development of SFI 38.1 standard
- Melvin , J. W. and Gideon , T. 2004 Biomechanical Principles of Racecar Seat Design for Side Impact Protection SAE Technical paper 2004-01-3515 Motorsports Engineering Conference and Exposition Dearborn, MI
- Mertz , H. , Prasad , P. , and Nusholtz , G. 1996 Head Injury Risk Assessment for Forehead Impacts SAE Technical paper 960099 Society of Automotive Engineers Warrendale PA
- Newman , J.A. , Shewchenko , N. , Welbourne , E. 2000 A Proposed New Biomechanical Head Injury Assessment Function - The Maximum Power Index Stapp Car Crash Journal 44 215 248
- SFI Foundation Inc. Specification 38.1 2011 Head and Neck Restraint Systems
- Takhounts , E. G. , Ridella , S. A. , Hasija , V. , Tannous , R. T. , Quinn Campbell , J. , Malone , D. , Danelson , K. , Stitzel , J. , Rowson , S. , and Duma , S. 2008 Investigation of Traumatic Brian Injuries Using the Next Generation of Simulated Injury Monitor (SIMon) Finite Element Head Model Stapp Car Crash Journal 52 1 31
- Takhounts , E. G. , Hasija , V. , Ridella , S. A. , Rowson , S. , and Duma , S. M. 2011 Kinematic Rotational Brain Injury Criterion (BRIC) Proceedings of the ESV Conference Washington
- Viano , D. C. , Bir , C. , Walilko , T. and Sherman , D. 2004 Ballistic Impact to the Forehead, Zygoma and Mandible: Comparison of Human and Frangible Dummy Face Biomechanics Journal of Trauma-Injury, Infection and Critical Care 56 6 1305 1311