This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Kinematics and Dynamics of the Pelvis in the Process of Submarining using PMHS Sled Tests
Published October 29, 2012 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
This study focused on a better understanding and characterization of the submarining phenomenon that occurs in frontal crashes when the lap belt slides over the anterior superior iliac spine. Submarining is the consequence of the pelvis kinematics relative to the lap belt, driven by the equilibrium of forces and moments applied to the pelvis. The study had two primary purposes; the first was to provide new PMHS data in submarining test configurations, the second was to investigate the Hybrid II and Hybrid III dummies biofidelity regarding submarining. Several Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) studies have been published on this subject. However, the lack of information about the occupant initial positioning and the use of car seats make it difficult to reconstruct these tests. Furthermore, the two dummies are rarely compared to PMHS in submarining test configurations.
A fifteen frontal sled test campaign was carried out on two Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) and nine PMHS. The test environment was designed to be reproducible. It consisted of a rigid seat, a 2-points shoulder belt and a 2-points lap belt instrumented to record their 3D forces at anchorage. The subjects were instrumented with angular sensors at the sacrum, T1 and T12 levels to record their initial angles. Kinematics was measured at these three levels by means of three accelerometers and angular velocity sensors. A PMHS positioning procedure was developed to ensure repeatability. A pre-test was performed on each subject to characterize its lumbar spine static behavior. All the subjects were CT-scanned from head to toe prior to the test. The campaign was divided into three test configurations leading to different surrogates' interaction with the environment and different kinematics. This resulted in a wider range of behaviors for the dummies evaluation. The deceleration pulse, initial lap belt angle, lap belt slack, seat pan angle and footrest position varied. The Hybrid II and Hybrid III dummies and three PMHS were tested in each configuration.
Forces and kinematics time history corridors based on the PMHS responses are provided for each configuration. The dummies' responses are evaluated against these targets. For the first configuration (40 km/h), the peak lap belt tension for both sides was between 3,000 N and 6,385 N for the three PMHS while it was around 4,700 N and 6,200 N in average for Hybrid II and Hybrid III respectively. The maximum pelvic rotation ranged from 41° to 80° for the PMHS and reached approximately 45° for the two dummies. For the other two configurations (50 km/h), the peak lap belt tension varied from 3,660 N to 7,180 N for the PMHS and was between 5,400 N and 6,100 N for Hybrid II and between 7,145 N and 7,900 N for Hybrid III. The maximum pelvic rotation ranged from 43° to 73° for the PMHS, while it reached approximately 54° and 46° for Hybrid II and Hybrid III respectively.
CitationLuet, C., Trosseille, X., Drazétic, P., Potier, P. et al., "Kinematics and Dynamics of the Pelvis in the Process of Submarining using PMHS Sled Tests," SAE Technical Paper 2012-22-0011, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-22-0011.
- Adomeit, D., and Heger, A. (1975) Motion Sequence Criteria and Design Proposals for Restraint Devices in Order to Avoid Unfavorable Biomechanic Conditions and Submarining, Proceedings of the 19th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 751146.
- Bohlin, N. (1967) A Statistical Analysis of 28,000 Accidents with Emphasis on Occupant Restraint Value, Proceedings of the 11th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 670925.
- Couturier, S., Faure, J., Satué, R., Huguet, J., Hordonneau, J. (2007) Procedure to Assess Submarining in Frontal Impact, ESV Conference, Paper n° 07-0481-O.
- Crandall, J.R., Bass, C.R., Pikey, W.D., Miller, H.J., Sikorski, J., Wilkins, M. (1997) Thoracic response and injury with belt, driver side airbag, and force limited belt restraint systems, International Journal of Crashworthiness, 1754-2111, Volume 2, Issue 1, 1996, Pages 119-132.
- Deng, Y.C. (1992) Developpement of a Submarining Model in the CAL3D Program, Proceedings of the 36th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper N° 922530.
- Foret-Bruno, J., Hartemann, F., Thomas, C., Fayon, A., Tarrière, C., Got, C., Patel, A. (1978) Correlation between thoracic lesions and force values measured at the shoulder of 92 belted occupants involved in real accidents, Proc. 22nd Stapp Car Crash Conference, Paper 780892.
- Foret-Bruno, J.Y., Trosseille, X., Page, Y., Huère, J.-F., Le Coz, J.-Y., Bendjellal, F., Diboine, A., Phalempin, T., Villeforceix, D., Baudrit, P., Guillemot, H., Coltat, J.-C. (2001) Comparison of thoracic injury risk in frontal car crashes for occupant restrained without belt load limiters and those restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN belt load limiters, 45th Stapp Car Crash Conference.
- Forman, J., Lessley, D., Shaw, C.G., Evans, J., Kent, R., Rouhana, S., Prasad, P. (2006a) Thoracic response of belted humans, the Hybrid III ATD, and the THOR-NT ATD in low-speed frontal crashes, Stapp Car Crash Journal volume 50.
- Forman, J., Lessley, D.J., Kent, R.W., Bostrom, O., Pipkorn, B. (2006b) Whole-body Kinematic and Dynamic Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests, Stapp Car Crash Journal volume 50: 299-336.
- Forman, J., Lopez-Valdes, F., Lessley, D., Kindig, M., Kent, R., Ridella, S., Bostrom, O. (2009) Rear seat occupant safety: an investigation of a progressive force-limiting, pretensioning 3-point belt system using adult PMHS in frontal sled tests, Proceedings of the 53rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, Stapp Car Crash Journal, 53():49-74.
- Horn, B. (1987) Closed-form solution of absolute orientation using unit quaternions, Journal of the Optical Society of America A, Vol. 4, page 629.
- Haland, Y., and Nilson, G. (1991) Seat Belt Pretensioners to Avoid the Risk of Submarining - A Study of Lap belt Slippage Factors, 13th International Conference on Experimental Safety Vehicles (ESV).
- Horsch, J.D., and Hering, W.E. (1989) A Kinematic Analysis of Lap belt Submarining for Test Dummies, Proceedings of the 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 892441.
- Kallieris, D., Mellander, H., Schmidt, G., Barz, J., Mattern, R. (1982) Comparison between frontal impact tests with cadavers and dummies in a simulated true car restrained environment, Proceedings of the 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 821170, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA.
- Kallieris, D., Stein, K., Mattern, R., Morgan, R., Eppinger, R. (1994) The performance of active and passive driver restraint systems in simulated frontal collisions, Proceedings of the 38th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 942216.
- Kallieris, D., Rizzetti, A., Mattern, R., Morgan, R., Eppinger, R., Keenan, L. (1995) On the synergism of the driver air bag and the three-point belt in frontal collisions, Proceedings of the 39th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 952700, pp 389-402.
- King, A., Viano, D.C., Mizeres, N., States, J.D. (1995) Humanitarian benefits of cadaver research on injury prevention, The journal of Trauma: Injury, Infection and Critical Care, Vol. 38, No.4, pp. 564-569.
- Kent, R.W., Crandall, J.R., Bolton, J., Prasad, P., Nusholtz, G., Mertz, H. (2001) The influence of superficial soft tissues and restraint condition on thoracic skeletal injury prediction, Stapp Car Crash Journal, 45:183-204.
- Lamielle, S., Cuny, S., Foret-Bruno, J.Y., Petit, P., Vezin, P., Verriest, J.P., Guillemot, H. (2006) Abdominal injury patterns in real frontal crashes: influence of crash conditions, occupant seat and restraint systems, Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med, 50, 103-118.
- Leung, Y.C., Tarrière, C., Fayon, A., Mairesse, P., Delmas, A., Banzet, P. (1979) A Comparison Between Part 572 Dummy and Human Subject in the problem of Submarining, Proceedings of the 23rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 791026.
- Leung, Y.C., Fayon, A. Mairesse, P., Banzet, P. (1980) A.T.P. Sécurité des véhicules : Critère sous-marinage, Rapport intermédiaire n°3.
- Leung, Y.C., Tarrière, C., Fayon, A. Mairesse, P., Banzet, P. (1981a) An Anti-Submarining Scale Determined from Theoretical and Experimental Studies Using Three-Dimensional Geometrical Definition of the Lap belt, Proceedings of the 25th Stapp Car Crash Conference, San Francisco, SAE paper n° 811020.
- Leung, Y.C., and Hamon, H. (1981b) Complementary Study in the Criterion of the Abdominal Injuries due to the Lap belt Submarining, CCMC/IRO/GIEPR Contract, Final Report.
- Leung, Y.C., Tarrière, C., Lestrelin, D., Hureau, J., Got, J.G., Guillon, F., Patel, A. (1982) Submarining Injuries of 3 Pt. Belted Occupants in Frontal Collisions - Description, Mechanisms and Protection, Proceedings of the 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 821158.
- Levine, R.S., Patrick, L.M., Begeman, P.C., King, A.I. (1978) Effect of quadriceps function on submarining, Proceedings of the 22nd American Association for Automotive Medicine Conference, Morton Grove, IL, pp 319-329.
- Lopez-Valdes, F.J., Lau, A., Lamp, J., Riley, P., Lessley, D.J., Damon, A., Kindig, M., Kent, R., Balasubramanian, S., Seacrist, T., Maltese, M.R., Arbogast, K.B., Higuchi, K., Tanji, H. (2010) Analysis of spinal motion and loads during frontal impacts, Comparison between PMHS and ATD, Annals of Advances in Automotive Medicine, 54:61-78.
- MacLaughlin, T. F., Sullivan, L. K., O'Connor, C. S. (1989) Experimental Investigation of Rear Seat Submarining, Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on the Experimental Safety Vehicle.
- Michaelson, J., Forman, J., Kent, R., Kuppa, S. (2008) Rear seat occupant safety: kinematics and injury of PMHS restrained by a standard 3-point belt in frontal crashes, Stapp Car Crash Journal 52: 295-325.
- Patrick, L. M., and Trosien, K. R. (1971) Volunteer, Anthropometric Dummy, and Cadaver Responses with Three and Four Point Restraints, Society of Automotive Engineers, Paper n° 710079.
- Patrick, L. M., and Levine, R. S. (1975) Injury to unembalmed belted cadavers in simulated collisions, Proceedings of the 19th Stapp Car Crash Conference, pp. 79-115, Warrendale, PA.
- Petitjean, A., Lebarbé, M., Potier, P., Trosseille, X., Lassau, J.P. (2002) Laboratory Reconstructions of Real World Frontal Crash Configurations using the Hybrid III and THOR Dummies and PMHS, Stapp Car Crash Journal, 46:27-54.
- Potier, P. (2010) Contribution méthodologique à la thanatomécanique et à la thanatométrologie, Thèse Génie Mécanique.
- Rouhana, S.W., Horsch, J.D., Kroell, C.K. (1989) Assessment of Lap-Shoulder Belt Restraint Performance in Laboratory Testing, Proceedings of the 33rd Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 892439.
- Schmidt, G., Kallieris, D., Barz, J., Mattern, R. (1974) Results of 49 cadaver tests simulating frontal collision of front seat passengers, Proceedings of the 18th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 741182.
- Shaw, G., Crandall, J., Butcher, J. (2000) Biofidelity evaluation of the THOR advanced frontal crash test dummy, Proceedings of the International Research Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI), pp. 11-29, Montpellier, France.
- Shaw, G., Parent, D., Purtsezov, S., Lessley, D., Crandall, J., Kent, R., Guillemot, H., Ridella, S.A., Takhounts, E., Martin, P. (2009) Impact Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests: Skeletal Deformation Patterns Under Seat Belt Loading, 53th Stapp Car Crash Conference.
- Society of Automotive Engineers (2007) SAE J 211-1: Instrumentation for Impact Test - Part 1 - Electronic Instrumentation, Society of Automotive Engineers.
- Song, D., Brun-Cassan, F., Le Coz, J.Y., Mack, P., Tarrière, C., Lavaste, F. (1993) Finite Elements Simulation of the Occupant/Belt Interaction: Chest and Pelvis Deformation, Belt Sliding and Submarining, Proceedings of the 26th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper N° 933108.
- Tarrière, C.H. (1973) Proposal for a Protection Criterion as Regards Abdominal Internal Organs, p. 371, Proceedings of conference A.A.A.M., Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
- Uriot, J., Baudrit, P., Potier, P., Trosseille, X., Petit, P., Guillemot, H., Guérin, L., Vallancien, G. (2006) Investigations on the belt-to-pelvis interaction in case of submarining, Stapp Car Crash Journal, 50:53-73.
- Vezin, P., Bruyere-Garnier, K., Bermond, F., Verriest, J. P. (2002) Comparison of Hybrid III, THOR-Alpha and PMHS Response in Frontal Sled Tests, Stapp Car Crash Journal, Vol. 46, p. 1-26.
- Walfisch, G., Fayon, A., Leung, Y.C., Tarriere, C., Got, C., Patel, A. (1979) Synthesis of Abdominal Injuries in Frontal Collisions with Belt-Wearing Cadavers Compared with Injuries Sustained by Real-Life Accident Victims. Problems of Simulation with Dummies and Protection Criteria, Proceedings of IRCOBI GOETEBORG, Sweden.
- Williams, J.S. (1970) The Nature of seat belt injuries, 14th Stapp Car Crash Conference, Paper 700896.
- Yoganandan, N., Skrade, D., Pintar, F., Reinartz, J., Sances, A. (1991) Thoracic deformation contours in a frontal impact, Proceedings of the 35th Stapp Car Crash Conference, SAE paper n° 912891.