This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Dynamic Properties of the Upper Thoracic Spine-Pectoral Girdle (UTS-PG) System and Corresponding Kinematics in PMHS Sled Tests
Published October 29, 2012 by The Stapp Association in United States
Annotation ability available
Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) should accurately depict head kinematics in crash tests, and thoracic spine properties have been demonstrated to affect those kinematics. To investigate the relationships between thoracic spine system dynamics and upper thoracic kinematics in crash-level scenarios, three adult post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) were tested in both Isolated Segment Manipulation (ISM) and sled configurations. In frontal sled tests, the T6-T8 vertebrae of the PMHS were coupled through a novel fixation technique to a rigid seat to directly measure thoracic spine loading. Mid-thoracic spine and belt loads along with head, spine, and pectoral girdle (PG) displacements were measured in 12 sled tests conducted with the three PMHS (3-pt lap-shoulder belted/unbelted at velocities from 3.8 - 7.0 m/s applied directly through T6-T8). The sled pulse, ISM-derived characteristic properties of that PMHS, and externally applied forces due to head-neck inertia and shoulder belt constraint were used to predict kinematic time histories of the T1-T6 spine segment. The experimental impulse applied to the upper thorax was normalized to be consistent with a T6 force/sled acceleration sinusoidal profile, and the result was an improvement in the prediction of T3 X-axis displacements with ISM properties. Differences between experimental and model-predicted displacement-time history increases were quantified with respect to speed. These discrepancies were attributed to the lack of rotational inertia of the head-neck late in the event as well as restricted kyphosis and viscoelasticity of spine constitutive structures through costovertebral interactions and mid-spine fixation. The results indicate that system dynamic properties from sub-injurious ISM testing could be useful for characterizing forward trajectories of the upper thoracic spine in higher energy crash simulations, leading to improved biofidelity for both ATDs and finite element models.
CitationStammen, J., Herriott, R., Kang, Y., Dupaix, R. et al., "Dynamic Properties of the Upper Thoracic Spine-Pectoral Girdle (UTS-PG) System and Corresponding Kinematics in PMHS Sled Tests," SAE Technical Paper 2012-22-0003, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-22-0003.
- Andriacchi T, et al. “A Model for Studies of Mechanical Interactions between the Human Spine and Rib Cage,” J Biomechanics 7 (1974): 497-507.
- Arbogast K, et al. “Injuries to Children in Forward-Facing Child Restraints,” Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med 46 (2002): 213-230.
- Arbogast K, et al. “Injury Risks for Children in Child Restraint Systems in Side Impact Crashes,” Proc of International Research Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact (2004).
- Arbogast K, et al. “Patterns and Predictors of Pediatric Head Injury,” Proc of International Research Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact (2005).
- Arbogast K, et al. “Anterior-Posterior Thoracic Force-Deflection Characteristics Measured During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Comparison to Post-Mortem Human Subject Data,” Stapp Car Crash Journal (2006).
- Arbogast K, et al. “Comparison of Kinematic Responses of the Head and Spine for Children and Adults in Low-Speed Frontal Sled Tests,” Stapp Car Crash Journal (2009).
- Ash J. et al. “Comparison of Anthropomorphic Test Dummies with a Pediatric Cadaver Restrained by a Three-Point Belt in Frontal Sled Tests,” Paper No. 09-0362, Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (2009).
- Barros E, et al. “Aging of the Elastic and Collagen Fibers in the Human Cervical Interspinous Ligaments,” The Spine Journal, Vol. 2 (2002): 57-62.
- Bass C, et al. “Failure Properties of the Cervical Spinal Ligaments Under Fast Strain Rate Deformations,” Spine, Vol. 32: 1 (2007).
- Begeman P, et al. “Spinal Loads Resulting from -Gx Acceleration,” Stapp Car Crash Journal 17 (1973): 343-359.
- Bohman K, et al. “Head Injury Causation Scenarios for Belted, Rear-Seated Children in Frontal Impacts,” Traffic Injury Prevention 12 (2011): 62-70.
- Cramer H, et al. “A Distributed Parameter Model of the Inertially Loaded Human Spine,” J Biomechanics 9 (1976): 115-130.
- Edmonston S, et al. “Comparison of Ribcage and Posteroanterior Thoracic Spine Stiffness: An Investigation of the Normal Response,” Manual Therapy (1999); 4(3): 157-163.
- Forman J, et al. “Thoracic Response of Belted PMHS, the Hybrid III, and the THOR-NT Mid-Sized Male Surrogates in Low Speed, Frontal Crashes,” Stapp Car Crash Journal (2006a).
- Forman J, et al. “Whole-Body Kinematic and Dynamic Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests,” Stapp Car Crash Journal (2006b).
- Hunter I and Kearney R. “Dynamics of Human Ankle Stiffness: Variation with Mean Ankle Torque,” J Biomechanics 15 (1982): 747-752.
- Kang, Y. “Evaluation of Biofidelity of Anthropomorphic Test Devices and Investigation of Cervical Spine Injury in Rear Impacts: Head-Neck Kinematics and Kinetics of Post Mortem Human Subjects,” Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State Univ. (2011).
- Kang YS, Moorhouse K, Bolte IV, JH. “Measurement of Six Degrees of Freedom Head Kinematics in Impact Conditions Employing Six Accelerometers and Three Angular Rate Sensors.” Journal of Biomechanical Engineering (2011).
- Kent R, Forman J, Parent D, Kuppa S. “The Feasibility and Effectiveness of Belt Pretensioning and Load Limiting for Adults in the Rear Seat,” Int J Vehicle Safety (2007): 2(4): 378-403.
- Kuppa S, et al. “Rear Seat Occupant Protection in Frontal Crashes,” 19th Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (2005).
- Lindbeck L, “Analysis of the Asymmetrically Loaded Spine By Means of a Continuum Beam Model,” J Biomechanics 20 (1987): 753-765.
- Lopez-Valdes F, et al. “The Biomechanics of the Pediatric and Adult Human Thoracic Spine,” Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med (2011a).
- Lopez-Valdes F, et al. “Comparing the Kinematics of the Head and Spine between Volunteers and PMHS: a Methodology to Estimate the Kinematics of Pediatric Occupants in a Frontal Impact,” Proc of International Research Conference on the Biomechanics of Impact (2011b).
- Lopez-Valdes F, et al. “Analysis of Spinal Motion and Loads during Frontal Impacts,” Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med (2010).
- Lopez-Valdes F, et al. “A Comparison between a Child-Size PMHS and the Hybrid III 6YO in a Sled Frontal Impact,” Annu Proc Assoc Adv Automot Med (2009).
- Lucas S, et al. “Viscoelastic Properties of the Cervical Spinal Ligaments Under Fast Strain Rate Deformations,” Acta Biomaterialia 4 (2008): 117-125.
- Michaelson J, et al. “Rear Seat Occupant Safety: Kinematics and Injury of PMHS Restrained by a Standard 3-Point Belt in Frontal Crashes,” Stapp Car Crash Journal (2008).
- Moorhouse K and Granata K. “Trunk Stiffness and Dynamics during Active Extension Exertions,” J Biomechanics 38 (2005): 2000-2007.
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. “Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking,” CFR 49 Part 571 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213: Child Restraints (2010).
- National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. “Code of Federal Regulations 49, Part 572: Anthropomorphic Test Devices,” (2011).
- Oda I, et al. “An In Vitro Human Cadaveric Study Investigating the Biomechanical Properties of the Thoracic Spine,” Spine (2002); 27(3): E64-E70.
- O'Gorman H, et al. “Thoracic Kyphosis and Mobility: The Effect of Age,” Physiotherapy Practice (1987); 3: 154-162.
- Oppenheim A and Willsky A. “Signals and Systems,” 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall (1997).
- Orne D and Liu Y, “A Mathematical Model of Spinal Response to Impact,” J Biomechanics 4 (1971): 49-71.
- Panjabi M, et al. “Mechanical Properties of the Human Thoracic Spine as Shown by Three-Dimensional Load-Displacement Curves,” J Bone & Joint Surgery (1976).
- Panjabi M, et al. “Three-Dimensional Flexibility and Stiffness Properties of the Human Thoracic Spine,” J Biomechanics 9 (1976): 185-192.
- Panjabi M, et al. “A Biomechanical Study of the Ligamentous Stability of the Thoracic Spine in Man,” Acta Orthop Scand 52 (1981): 315-326.
- Panjabi M, et al. “Cervical Spine Ligament Injury During Simulated Frontal Impact,” Spine 29; 21 (2004).
- Pintar F, et al. “Lower Cervical Spine Loading in Frontal Sled Tests using Inverse Dynamics: Potential Applications for Lower Neck Injury Criteria,” Fifty-Fourth Stapp Car Crash Journal (2010).
- Sahraei E, Digges K. “Trend of Rear Occupant Protection in Frontal Crashes over Model Years of Vehicles,” SAE 2009-01-0377 (2009).
- Salzar R, et al. “Viscoelastic Response of the Thorax Under Dynamic Belt Loading,” Traffic Injury Prevention (2009).
- Seacrist T et al. “Kinematic Comparison of Pediatric Human Volunteers and the Hybrid III 6-Year-Old Anthropomorphic Test Device. AAAM (2010).
- Shaw G, et al. “Spinal Kinematics of Restrained Occupant in Frontal Impacts,” IRCOBI (2001).
- Shaw G, et al. “Impact Response of Restrained PMHS in Frontal Sled Tests: Skeletal Deformation Patterns Under Seat Belt Loading,” Stapp Car Crash Journal (2009).
- Sherwood C, et al. “Prediction of Cervical Spine Injury Risk for the 6-Year-Old Child in Frontal Crashes,” AAAM (2002).
- Stammen J & Sullivan L. “Development of a Hybrid III 6 Yr. Old and 10 Yr. Old Dummy Seating Procedure for Booster Seat Testing,” Technical Docket Report (2008), NHTSA-2007-0048-0002.1. (www.regulations.gov).
- Stammen J, et al. “Sequential Biomechanics of the Human Upper Thoracic Spine - Pectoral Girdle,” AAAM (2012).
- Terry C and Roberts V, “A Viscoelastic Model of the Human Spine Subjected to +Gz Accelerations,” J Biomechanics 1 (1968): 161-168.
- Vezin P, et al. “Comparison of Hybrid III, Thor-alpha and PMHS Response in Frontal Sled Tests,” Stapp Car Crash Journal (2002).
- Walker L, et al. “Mass, Volume, Center of Mass, and Mass Moment of Inertia of Head and Head and Neck of Human Body,” Stapp Car Crash Journal 17 (1973).
- Watkins R, et al. “Stability Provided by the Sternum and Ribcage in the Thoracic Spine,” Spine 30:11 (2005).
- Willems J, et al. “An In Vivo Study of the Primary and Coupled Rotations of the Thoracic Spine,” Clinical Biomechanics 11; 6 (1996).
- Yoganandan N, et al. “Geometric and Mechanical Properties of Human Cervical Spine Ligaments,” J Biomech Eng (2000); 122(6).
- Yoganandan, N., Zhang, J., Pintar, F. A., and Liu, Y. K. “Lightweight Low-Profile Nine-Accelerometer Package to Obtain Head Angular Accelerations in Short-Duration Impacts,” J Biomechanics 39 (2006): 1347-1354.
- Yoganandan N, et al. “Physical Properties of the Human Head: Mass, Center of Gravity, and Moment of Inertia,” J Biomechanics (2009).