This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Development of Synthetic Drive Cycle for Fuel Economy Prediction
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 24, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
With growing fuel prices and global warming, fuel economy improvement and reduced emissions are becoming order of the day. Automobile manufacturers around the world are in increasing pressure to achieve the same, also keeping in account the stiff timelines required in the product developmental cycle. Condensed duty cycle that is representative of several days of actual real life running is developed for quicker fuel economy tuning on a chassis dynamometer. This paper presents a new methodology to obtain a synthetic drive duty cycle, which matches engine operating conditions of the actual real life cycle accurately and thereby providing a more accurate match in fuel economy.
Drive duty cycle (vehicle velocity profile) used in this study is extracted from the instrumented vehicle in the real traffic condition (peak/lean hour) of major cities in India at different location/load conditions. Each recorded trip is further divided into micro trips. Several principal components such as average velocity, percentage of times in acceleration, deceleration, cruise & idle, shift pattern closeness, (which is a measure of number of shifts from one of the above-mentioned state to the other), etc., of the entire trip and individual micro trips are evaluated. The synthetic drive duty cycle is derived by minimizing the objective function, which is created from a selected set of the principal components. An optimization algorithm that reduces the objective function coded in MATLAB is used to create the synthetic duty cycle by suitably clubbing the micro trips such that there are no repetitions. The synthetic cycle and the full trip data are both analyzed for fuel economy in AVL-CRUISE software. From the AVL-CRUISE simulation results, fuel economy & engine operating points of condensed & real-world cycle are compared. Principal components that yield the closest match not only in fuel economy but also on engine operating points repeatedly are identified and presented.
With the identified objective function from a optimal set of principal components, the engine operating point plots and hence the fuel economy values matches very well with that of the entire trip to within ±3% and the total development time is reduced to less than 1/6th of the time consumed otherwise. This methodology provides repeatable & reproducible results consistently. Some of the factors affecting the data obtained from different cycles are discussed and possible methodologies to develop synthetic cycles across different vehicle categories/platforms are suggested.
CitationA N Prasad, S., Manickam, M., D, B., and Saravanan, N., "Development of Synthetic Drive Cycle for Fuel Economy Prediction," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-2048, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-2048.
- Cars, M 50BY50 report, Global fuel economy initiative 2009
- Hoel, Michael Kvemdokk, Snorre Depletion of fossil fuels and the impacts of global warming Resource and Energy Economics 18 115 136 1996
- KPMG International Competing in the Global Truck Industry - Emerging Markets Spotlight, Publication No. 110604 2011
- Watson, H. C. Milkins, E. E. Braunsteins, J. “The Development of the Melbourne Peak Cycle,” SAE/ARRB 2nd Conference on Traffic Energy and Emissions 1982
- Dembski, N. Guezennec, Y. Soliman, A. “Analysis and Experimental Refinement of Real-World Driving Cycles,” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0069 2002 10.4271/2002-01-0069
- Kruse, R. Huls, T. “Development of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule,” SAE Technical Paper 730553 1973 10.4271/730553
- Rizzoni, G. Guezennec, Y. Brahma, A. Wei, X. et al. “VP-SIM: A Unified Approach to Energy and Power Flow Modeling Simulation and Analysis of Hybrid Vehicles,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1565 2000 10.4271/2000-01-1565
- ANDRÉ, Michel Real-world driving cycles for measuring cars pollutant emissions - Part A: The ARTEMIS European driving cycles Report INRETS-LTE 0411 June 2004
- ANDRÉ, Michel RAPONE, Mario JOUMARD, Robert Analysis of the cars pollutant emissions as regards driving cycles and kinematic parameters Report INRETS-LTE 0607 March 2006
- Tzirakis, E. Pitsas, K. Zannikos, F. Stournas, S. Vehicle Emissions And Driving Cycles: Comparison Of The Athens Driving Cycle (ADC) With Ece-15 And European Driving Cycle (EDC) Global NEST Journal 8 3 282 290 2006
- Wu, Q. Liu, H. lu, L. “Analysis and Evaluation of the Urban Bus Driving Cycle on Fuel Economy,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-2073 2007 10.4271/2007-01-2073
- AVL Cruise User Manual 2008
- Dai, Zhen Niemeier, Deb Eisinger, Douglas Driving Cycles: A New Cycle-Building Method That Better Represents Real-World Emissions Report - Task Order No. 66 University of California Davis 2008
- Tae-Kyung Lee, Zoran Filipi, S. Representative Real-world Driving Cycles in Midwestern US Proceedings of Int. Scient. Conf. on hybrid and electric vehicles - RHEVE 2011 6 7 December 2011
- AVL Cruise Release Notes
- Matlab Release Notes