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A Pareto Frontier Analysis of Renewable-Energy Consumption, Range, and Cost for Hydrogen Fuel Cell vs. Battery Electric Vehicles
ISSN: 2167-4191, e-ISSN: 2167-4205
Published April 16, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Veenstra, M. and Gearhart, C., "A Pareto Frontier Analysis of Renewable-Energy Consumption, Range, and Cost for Hydrogen Fuel Cell vs. Battery Electric Vehicles," SAE Int. J. Alt. Power. 1(1):354-364, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-1224.
As automakers strategize approaches to sustainable vehicle technologies, alternative powertrains must be considered to reduce future fleet vehicle emissions and improve energy security. These alternative vehicles include different fuels and electrification. The ultimate for on-road CO2 reductions is a zero emission vehicle, which can be achieved by either a hydrogen fuel cell or battery electric vehicle. These vehicles would also require a renewable energy source to provide their propulsion energy in order to achieve maximum sustainability for both CO2 reduction and energy security. Renewable energy sources such as wind or solar result in heat or electricity that needs to be generated into an energy carrier such as hydrogen or stored in a battery. When examining these options based strictly on the efficiency path, previous analysis have concluded fuel cell vehicles may not be an appropriate suitability strategy in comparison to battery electric vehicles. However, the viability of an alternative vehicle requires a comprehensive assessment of the various vehicle parameters that affect the customer satisfaction. In particular, this paper examines the renewable energy consumption, range, and cost for hydrogen fuel cell and battery electric vehicles. In particular, these conflicting attributes are examined using an objective Pareto frontier analysis to evaluate the trade-offs and trends that should be considered when developing a sustainability strategy.
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