This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Evaluating Synergies between Fuels and Near Term Powertrain Technologies through Vehicle Drive Cycle and Performance Simulation
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 16, 2012 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The main focus nowadays for the development of future vehicle powertrain systems is the improvement in fuel efficiency alongside the reduction of pollutant emissions and greenhouse gasses, most notably carbon dioxide.
The automotive community is already engaged in seeking solutions to these issues, however, the ideal solution, namely zero emission vehicle is still regarded as being a long way from fruition for the mass market. In the meantime steps are being taken, in terms of engineering development, towards improved fuel efficiency and sustainability of relatively conventionally powered vehicles.
One approach to the decarbonization of road vehicles is to supplement existing fossil fuels with sustainable biofuels.
The present study examines the effect of a variety of gasoline/alcohol fuel blends on the performance of spark ignition engine vehicles and the potential of suitable "near to market" technology, using a combination of dynamometer measurements for a high technology downsized engine, running on a variety of fuel blends, and a detailed vehicle simulation model. Fuel consumption, and hence CO₂ emissions, results are presented for the technology and fuel combinations over a number of legislative and "real world" drive-cycles.
Vehicle simulation was also used to investigate vehicle transient response, which is key to successful engine downsizing. A model was developed, and is presented here, to enable the assessment of the influence of the torque build-up of a turbocharged engine upon vehicle performance. The successful implementation of this model allowed results from transient engine dynamometer testing to be translated into vehicle acceleration times.
The outcome of this analysis provides a recommendation for suitable fuel and technology combinations for the development of passenger car engines, for the near- to mid-term time frame, that deliver a significant reduction in CO₂ while maintaining "driveability." It is shown that tank-to-wheel reductions of up to 38% in CO₂ emissions are possible with currently available technologies across the NEDC drive-cycle. The correct biofuel blends with RON levels between 100 and 102 offer the majority of the benefits and are shown to enable significant further tank-to-wheel CO₂ reduction potential.
CitationBisordi, A., OudeNijeweme, D., Bassett, M., Stansfield, P. et al., "Evaluating Synergies between Fuels and Near Term Powertrain Technologies through Vehicle Drive Cycle and Performance Simulation," SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-0357, 2012, https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0357.
- Cockerill, S., “Securing Our Future with Greener Food and Fuel”, ImechE Fuels for Low Carbon Transportation Seminar, 30 November 2010.
- Directive on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources (RED), 2009/28/EC, 23 April 2009
- Fuel quality directive, 2009/30/EC, 23 April 2009
- Hancock, D., Fraser, N., Jeremy, M., Sykes, R. et al., “A New 3 Cylinder 1.2l Advanced Downsizing Technology Demonstrator Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0611, 2008, doi:10.4271/2008-01-0611.
- Lumsden, G., OudeNijeweme, D., Fraser, N., and Blaxill, H., “Development of a Turbocharged Direct Injection Downsizing Demonstrator Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):1420-1432, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1503.
- Korte, V., et. al. “MAHLE-Bosch Demonstrator Vehicle for Advanced Downsizing”, 19. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeugund Motorentechnik, 2010
- Stansfield, P., Cairns, A., Fraser, N., Blaxill, H., Gold, M., Rogerson, J., Williams, J., “A Study of Gasoline-Alcohol Blended Fuels in a Turbocharged DISI Engine”, IMechE Combustion Engines and Fuels Group, 8 - 9 December 2009
- Cairns, A., Stansfield, P., Fraser, N., Blaxill, H. et al., “A Study of Gasoline-Alcohol Blended Fuels in an Advanced Turbocharged DISI Engine,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2(1):41-57, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0138.
- Milpied, J., Jeuland, N., Plassat, G., Guichaous, S. et al., “Impact of Fuel Properties on the Performances and Knock Behaviour of a Downsized Turbocharged DISI Engine - Focus on Octane Numbers and Latent Heat of Vaporization,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2(1):118-126, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0324.
- André, M. “The ARTEMIS European driving cycles for measuring car pollutant missions”, Science of the Total Environment 334-335, pp.73-78, Published by Elsevier B.V., 2004.
- Stansfield, P., Bisordi, A., OudeNijeweme, D., Williams, J. et al., “The Performance of a Modern Vehicle on a Variety of Alcohol-Gasoline Fuel Blends,” SAE Technical Paper 2012-01-1272, 2012, doi:10.4271/2012-01-1272.
- Lenaers, G., “Real Life CO2 Emission and Consumption of Four Car Powertrain Technologies Related to Driving Behaviour and Road Type,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-24-0127, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-24-0127.
- Daniel, R., Brooks, T., and Pates, D., “Analysis of US and EU Drive Styles to Improve Understanding of Market Usage and the Effects on OBD Monitor IUMPR,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0236, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-0236.
- Bassett, M., Fraser, N., Brooks, T., Taylor, G. et al., “A Study of Fuel Converter Requirements for an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle,” SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1):631-654, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-0832.
- GT-Suite from Gamma Technologies Inc. http://www.gtisoft.com
- E/ECE/324 & E/ECE/TRANS/505, Addendum 82: Regulation No. 83 Revision 3, “UNIFORM PROVISIONS CONCERNING THE APPROVAL OF VEHICLES WITH REGARD TO THE EMISSION OF POLLUTANTS ACCORDING TO ENGINE FUEL REQUIREMENTS”, 14 June 2005.
- Guzzella, L., Sciarretta, A., “Vehicle Propulsion Systems: Introduction to Modeling and Optimization”, 2nd Edition, Springer, 2007
- A123 systems ANR26650 m1B product specification sheet. http://www.a123systems.com/Collateral/Documents/English-US/A123%20Systems%20ANR26650%20Data%20Sheet.pdf
- Ehsani, M., Gao, Y., Emadi, A., “Modern Electric, Hybrid Electric and Fuel Cell Vehicles - Fundamentals, Theory and Design”, 2nd Edition, CRC Press, 2010