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Optical Diagnostics of the Pollutant Formation in a CI Engine Operating with Diesel Fuel Blends
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published June 09, 2011 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Merola, S., Marchitto, L., Corcione, F., Valentino, G. et al., "Optical Diagnostics of the Pollutant Formation in a CI Engine Operating with Diesel Fuel Blends," SAE Int. J. Engines 4(2):2543-2558, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-37-0003.
To meet the future stringent emission standards, innovative diesel engine technology, exhaust gas after-treatment, and clean alternative fuels are required. Oxygenated fuels have showed a tendency to decrease internal combustion engine emissions. In the same time, advanced fuel injection modes can promote a further reduction of the pollutants at the exhaust without penalty for the combustion efficiency. One of the more interesting solutions is provided by the premixed low temperature combustion (LTC) mechanism jointly to lower-cetane, higher-volatility fuels.
In this paper, to understand the role played by these factors on soot formation, cycle resolved visualization, UV-visible optical imaging and visible chemiluminescence were applied in an optically accessed high swirl multi-jets compression ignition engine. Combustion tests were carried out using three fuels: commercial diesel, a blend of 80% diesel with 20% gasoline (G20) and a blend of 80% diesel with 20% n-butanol (BU20). The fuels were tested at 70MPa injection pressure and different timings. At late injection timing coupled to high EGR rate (50%), the blends increased the ignition delay allowing to operate in partially premixed LTC (PPLTC) regime in which the fuel is completely injected before the start of combustion. Strong reduction of engine out emissions of smoke and NOx were obtained but with a little penalty on engine efficiency. This limitation was overcome operating at earlier injection timing in which a mixing controlled combustion (MCC) LTC regime was realized. In this regime, a good compromise between low engine out emissions and efficiency was achieved.