This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Diesel Injector Deposits - An Issue That Has Evolved with Engine Technology
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published August 30, 2011 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Diesel engines have traditionally been favoured in heavy-duty applications for their fuel economy, robustness, reliability and relative lack of fuel sensitivity. Recently it has seen a growth in its popularity in light duty applications due particularly to its fuel efficiency. However, as the engine technology and particularly the fuel injection equipment has evolved to meet ever stricter emissions legislation the engines have become more sensitive to deposit formation resulting from changes in fuel quality. This paper reviews bouts of concern over diesel fuel injector deposits, possible causes for the phenomenon and test methods designed to screen fuels to eliminate problems.
CitationBarker, J., Richard, P., Snape, C., and Meredith, W., "Diesel Injector Deposits - An Issue That Has Evolved with Engine Technology," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1923, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1923.
- Diesel, R. “Arbeitsverfahren und Ausführungsart für Verbrennungskraftmaschinen” Patentschrift Nr 67207, 1892
- Soehngen, E. E. “The Development of Coal-Burning Diesel Engines in Germany” Energy Research and Development Administration report FE/WAPO/3387-1, 1976
- Marshall, H. P. and Walters, D. C. “An Experimental Investigation of a Coal-Slurry Fueled Diesel Engine” SAE paper 770795
- Rentz, R. L., Timbario, T. J. and Renner, R. A. “Solid Fuel Applications to Transportation Engines” SAE paper 810445
- Caton, J. A. and Rosegay, K. H. “A Review and Comparison of Reciprocating Engine Operation Using Solid Fuels” SAE paper 831362
- Robben, F. “Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines” SAE paper 831747
- Khandare, S. S., Gerg, R. D. and Gaur, R. R. “Investigation on the Use of Solid Fuels for Diesel Engines” SAE paper 872094
- Ahmadi, M. R., Kittelson, D. B. and Brehob, B. B. “Combustion of Minimally Processed Coal Liquids in a Diesel Engine” SAE paper 900399
- Soloiu, V., Yoshihara, Y. and Nishiwaki, K. “Combustion Characteristics of an Alternative Charcoal Slurry Fuel in a Diesel Engine” JSAE /SAE Paper 20097168 /2009-32-0168
- Diesel, R. “Method of and Means for Regulating Internal Combustion Motors” GB Patent No 7658, 1899
- McKechnie, J. “Improvements in Internal Combustion Engines” GB Patent No 27,579, 1911
- McKechnie, J. “Improvements in and relating to the Injection of Liquid Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines” GB Patent No 24,153, 1913
- Gaff, T. T. US Patent 1,059,604
- Miyaki, M., Iwanaga, T. and Fujisaw, H. “Fuel Injection System” US Patent 4,777,921
- Miyaki, M., Fujisaw, H., Masuda, A. and Yamamoto, Y. “Development of New Electronically Controlled Fuel Injection System ECD-U2 for Diesel Engines” SAE paper 910252
- Ohishi, K., Maeda, T. and Hummel, K. “The New Common Rail Fuel System for Duramax 6600 V8 Diesel Engine” SAE paper 2001-01-2704
- Dober, G., Tullis, S., Greeves, G. and Milovanovic, N. “The Impact of Injection Strategies on Emissions Reduction and Power Output of Future Diesel Engines” SAE paper 2008-01-0941
- “Next Generation Heavy Duty Fuel System launched by Delphi at IAA CV Show.” Vehicle Technology, Winter 2009.
- Delphi website viewed 17th April 2009. http://delphi.com/manufacturers/cv/powertrain/common-rail-systems/high-pressure-heavy-duty-diesel/
- Heldt, P. M. “Development of the High-Speed Diesel Engine” SAE paper 270035
- Barsic, N. J. and Humke, A. L. “Performance and Emissions Characteristics of a Naturally Aspirated Diesel Engine with Vegetable Oil Fuels” SAE paper 810262
- Irish, G. E. and Mattson, R. W. “Cleaner Injectors and Less Smoke with Hydrogen-Treated Diesel Fuel” SAE paper 640459
- Montagne, X., Herrier, D. and Guibet, J-C. “Fouling of Automotive Diesel Injectors - Test procedure, Influence of Composition of Diesel Oil and Additives” SAE paper 872118
- Reading, K., Roberts, D. D. and Evans, T. M. “The Effects of Fuel Detergents on Nozzle Fouling and Emissions in IDI Diesel Engines” SAE paper 912328
- Sutton, D. L., Rush, M. W. and Richards, P. “Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions Using Different Fuel/Additive Combinations” SAE paper 880635
- Sutton, D. L. “Investigation into Diesel Operation with Changing Fuel Property” SAE paper 860222
- Winterbone, D. E., Clough, E., Rao, K. K., Richards, P. and Williams, D. “The Effects of DI Nozzle Fouling on Fuel Spray Characteristics” SAE paper 922232
- Richards, P., Walker, R. D. and Williams, D. “Fouling of Two Stage Injectors - An Investigation into Some Causes and Effects” SAE paper 971619
- Sem, T. R. “Investigation of Injector Tip Deposits on Transport Refrigeration Units Running on Biodiesel Fuel” SAE paper 2004-01-0091
- Li, H., Lea-Langton, A., Biller, P., Andrews, G. et al., “Effect of Multifunctional Fuel Additive Package on Fuel Injector Deposit, Combustion and Emissions using Pure Rape Seed Oil for a DI Diesel,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2(2):54-65, 2010, doi:10.4271/2009-01-2642.
- Norman, G. R. “A New Approach to Diesel Smoke Suppression” SAE paper 660339
- Brubacher, M. L. “Reduction of Diesel Smoke in California” SAE paper 660548
- Olsen, R. E., Ingham, M. C. and Parsons, G. M. “A Fuel Additive Concentrate for Removal of Injector Deposits in Light-Duty Diesels” SAE paper 841349
- Reynolds, E. G. “A Procedure for the Assessment of Pintle Injector Nozzle Blockage (Nozzle Coking) In Indirect Injection Diesel Engines” SAE paper 861409
- Coordinating European Council test method CEC F-23-X-93 Procedure for IDI Diesel Injector Nozzle Coking Test, 1993
- Mulard, P.P. and China, P. N. “Development of a Diesel Fuel Screening Test for Injector Nozzle Coking” SAE paper 922184
- Panesar, A., Martens, A., Jansen, L., Lal, S., Ray, D. and Twilley, M. “Development of a New Peugeot XUD9 10 Hour Cyclic Test to Evaluate the Nozzle Coking Propensity of Diesel Fuels” SAE paper 2000-01-1921
- Hawthorne, M., Roos, J. W. and Openshaw, M. J. “Use of Fuel Additives to Maintain Modern Diesel Engine Performance with Severe Test Conditions” SAE paper 2008-01-1806
- Birgel, A., Ladommatos, N., Aleiferis, P., Milovanovic, N., Lacey, P. and Richards, P. “Investigations on Deposit Formation in the Holes of Diesel Injector Nozzles” JSAE 20119127
- Arpaia, A., Catania, A. E., d'Ambrosio, S., Ferrari, A., Luisi, S. P., and Spessa, E. “Injector Coking Effects on Engine Performance and Emissions” ICEF2009-14094, ASME Conf. Proc. 2009
- Caprotti, R., Takaharu, s. and Masahiro, D. “Impact of Diesel Fuel Additives on Vehicle Performance” SAE paper 2008-01-1600
- Virk, K., Herbstman, S. and Rawdon, M. “Development of Direct Injection Diesel Engine Injector Keep Clean and Clean up Tests” SAE paper 912329
- Gallant, T. R., Cusano, C. M., Gray, J. T. and Strete, N. M. “Cummins L10 Injector Depositing Test to Evaluate Diesel Fuel Quality” SAE paper 912331
- Welliver, D. R. and Policarpio, J. “The New Cummins L10 Engine and Voith Automatic Transmission Powertrain” SAE paper 852320
- Perr, J. P. “Fuel Injector” US patent 3,351,288 1967
- Blythe, G. H. and Flask, C. A. “Development of an Image Analysis System to Rate Injectors from the Cummins L10 Injector Depositing Test” SAE paper 972902
- Gutman, M., Tartakovsky, L., Kirzhner, Y. and Zvirin, Y. “Development of a Screening Test for Evaluating Detergent/Dispersant Additives to Diesel Fuel” SAE paper 961184
- Williams, R. “Development of a Nozzle Fouling Test for Additive Rating in Heavy Duty DI Diesel Engines” SAE paper 2002-01-2721
- Lee, S. and Reitz, R., “Spray Targeting to Minimize Barker, J., Richards, P., Goodwin, M., and Wooler, J., “Influence of High Injection Pressure on Diesel Fuel Stability: A Study of Resultant Deposits,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2(1):877-884, 2009, doi:10.4271/2009-01-1877.
- Cook, S. and Richards, P. “Possible Influence of High Injection Pressure on Diesel Fuel Stability: A Review and Preliminary Study” SAE 2009-01-1878
- Ullmann, J., Geduldig, M., Stutzenberger, H., Caprotti, R. and Balfour, G. “Investigation into the Formation and Prevention of Internal Diesel Injector Deposits” SAE 2008-01-0926
- Schwab, S., Bennett, J., Dell, S., Galante-Fox, J. et al., “Internal Injector Deposits in High-Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engines,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 3(2):865-878, 2010, doi:10.4271/2010-01-2242.
- Barker, J., Richards, P., Snape, C., and Meredith, W., “A Novel Technique for Investigating the Nature and Origins of Deposits Formed in High Pressure Fuel Injection Equipment,” SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 2(2):38-44, 2010, doi:10.4271/2009-01-2637.
- Barker, J., Richards, P., and Langley, G. J. “Insights into Deposit Formation in High Pressure Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment” SAE paper 2010-01-2243
- Bondioli, P, Cortesi, C, and Mariani, C. “Identification and Quantification of steryl glucosides in biodiesel” Protemics 2008, 110, 120-126.
- Jolly, L. A., Strojek, W., Bunting, W., Sakata, I. and Kitano, K. “A Study of Mixed-FAME and Trace Component Effects on the Filter Blocking Propensity of FAME and FAME Blends” SAE paper 2010-01-2116