This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Friction Force Measurement at Brake Discs
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published May 17, 2011 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Experimental researches on brake squeal have been performed since many years in order to get an insight into friction-excited vibrations and squeal triggering mechanisms. There are many different possibilities to analyse brake squeal. The different operating deflection shapes can be detected using e.g. laser vibrometer systems or acceleration sensors. Piezoelectric load cells can be used for the measurement of the normal contact force of the brake pad.
The presented test setup measures not only the mean value of the friction force between brake pad and disc at a certain brake pressure, but also the superposed vibration of this force, which only occurs during a squeal event. Therefore the guide pins of the brake caliper are replaced by modified ones. The brake pads are held in position by these pins and the resulting force of the brake torque, hence the friction force, acts on these pins. The shape of the pins is optimized for measuring these forces. For the measurement strain gauges are mounted on the pin. The dominant frequency of this measured vibration correlates with the microphone used in parallel.
Simultaneously to the test runs a simple analytical model has been developed, which represents the tested brake system. Further research on the test rig regarding the squeal triggering mechanism and the contact between disc and pad is expected to provide new insight into the elusive problem of brake squeal. This will be used to adapt the simple analytical model. The aim is to develop an experimentally verified contact algorithm, which can be used in simplified multi-body simulations or detailed finite element analyses. Thus, it will be possible to predict the critical squeal frequencies of a new brake system and to estimate the effect of potential countermeasures.
CitationBernsteiner, S. and Wallner, D., "Friction Force Measurement at Brake Discs," SAE Technical Paper 2011-01-1576, 2011, https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-1576.
- Akay, A. “Acoustics of friction,” Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 111 4 1525 1548 2002 10.1121/1.1456514
- Chen, F. McKillip, D. “Measurement and analysis of vibration and deformation using laser metrology for automotive application,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D J. Automob. Eng. 221 6 725 738 2007 10.1243/09544070JAUTO67
- Fieldhouse, J. Steel, W. Talbot, C. “The measurement of the absolute displacement of a noisy disc brake,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D J. Automob. Eng. 222 7 1121 1140 2008 10.1243/09544070JAUTO582
- Ouyang, H. Cao, Q. Mottershead, J. Treyde, T. “Vibration and squeal of a disc brake: Modelling and experimental results,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D J. Automob. Eng. 217 10 867 875 2003 10.1243/095440703769683270
- Sardá, A. Haag, M. Winner, H. Semsch, M. “Experimental Investigation of Hot Spots and Thermal Judder,” SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-2544 2008 10.4271/2008-01-2544
- Marschner, H. Rischbieter, F. “Three-Dimensional Operational Deflection Shape Analysis of Squealing Disc Brakes,” SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-2796 2004 10.4271/2004-01-2796
- Degenstein, T. Winner, H. “Dynamic Measurement of the Forces in the Friction Area of a Disc Brake during a Braking Process,” FISITA 2006 World Automotive Congress Japan October 22-27 2006
- Neubauer, M. Oleskiewicz, R. “Brake squeal control with shunted piezoceramics - efficient modelling and experiments” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D J. Automob. Eng. 222 7 1141 1151 2008 10.1243/09544070JAUTO592
- Schlagner, S. von Wagner, U. “Fast Characterization of Brake Squeal Behavior,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 2 2 1 9 2010 10.4271/2009-01-3006
- Tonchev, A. Hirschberg, W. Jagsch, S. “Investigation of the Thermal Vehicle Brake Behavior During the Vehicle's Development Phase by Co-Simulation,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-3935 2007 10.4271/2007-01-3935
- Hoffmann, K. “An Introduction to Measurements using Strain Gages,” Hottinger Baldwin Messtechnik GmbH 1989
- Ostermeyer, G. “Dynamic Friction Laws and Their Impact on Friction Induced Vibrations,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1717 2010 10.4271/2010-01-1717
- Cantoni, C. Cesarini, R. Mastinu, G. Rocca, G. Sicigliano, R. “Brake Comfort - a Review,” Vehicle Systems Dynamics 47 8 901 947 2009 10.1080/00423110903100432
- Coulomb, C.A. “Die Theorie einfacher Schwingungen,” Memoires de mathematique et de physique de l'Académie des Sciences 10 161 331 1785
- Emira, M. “Friction-induced oscillations of a slider: Parametric study of some system parameters” Journal of Sound and Vibration 300 3-5 916 931 2007 10.1016/j.jsv.2006.09.010
- Shin, K. Brennan, M.J. Oh, J.-E. Harris, C.J. “Analysis of disk brake noise using a two-degree-of-freedom model” Journal of Sound and Vibration 254 5 837 848 2002 10.1006/jsvi.2001.4127
- Hoffmann, N. “Transient growth and stick-slip in sliding friction,” Journal of Applied Mechanics 73 4 642 647 2006 10.1115/1.2165233
- Hoffmann, N. Gaul, L. “Effects of damping on mode-coupling instability in friction induced oscillations” ZAMM 83 8 524 534 2003 10.1002/zamm.200310022
- Ostermeyer, G. “On Tangential Friction Induced Vibrations in Brake Systems,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 1 1 1251 1257 2009 10.4271/2008-01-2580
- Wallner, D. Bernsteiner, S. Hirschberg, W. Rabofsky, A. “Numerical and Experimental Parameter Studies on Brake Squeal,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1712 2010 10.4271/2010-01-1712