This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 25, 2010 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A Scania 13 1 engine modified for single cylinder operations was run using nine fuels in the boiling point range of gasoline, but very different octane number, together with PRF20 and MK1-diesel. The eleven fuels were tested in a load sweep between 5 and 26 bar gross IMEP at 1250 rpm and also at idle (2.5 bar IMEP, 600 rpm). The boost level was proportional to the load while the inlet temperature was held constant at 303 K. For each fuel the load sweep was terminated if the ignitibility limit was reached. A lower load limit of 15 and 10 bar gross IMEP was found with fuels having an octane number range of 93-100 and 80-89 respectively, while fuels with an octane number below 70 were able to run through the whole load range including idle.
A careful selection of boost pressure and EGR in the previously specified load range allowed achieving a gross indicated efficiency between 52 and 55% while NOx ranged between 0.1 and 0.5 g/kWh. At high load, in the worst case, the nine gasolines showed 0.5 FSN of soot while diesel showed 2.8 FSN. In the paper it is shown that chemical reasons, rather than mixing, are behind this substantial gap.
With the two best fuels, the brake parameters were estimated. It was found that soot was low, and in some cases below both the EU VI and US10 regulations. NOx was always below EU VI, and in some cases was only slight above US10 regulations. At high loads the estimated brake efficiency was roughly 50% in both cases. All the results were achieved keeping the maximum pressure rise rate within acceptable levels.
CitationManente, V., Zander, C., Johansson, B., Tunestal, P. et al., "An Advanced Internal Combustion Engine Concept for Low Emissions and High Efficiency from Idle to Max Load Using Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-2198, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-2198.
- Kalghatgi, G.T. Risberg, P. Ångström, H.-E. “Advantages of Fuels with High Resistance to Auto-ignition in Late-injection, Low-temperature, Compression Ignition Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3385 2006 10.4271/2006-01-3385
- Kalghatgi, G.T. Risberg, P. Ångström, H.-E. “Partially Pre-Mixed Auto-Ignition of Gasoline to Attain Low Smoke and Low NOx at High Load in a Compression Ignition Engine and Comparison with a Diesel Fuel,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0006 2007 10.4271/2007-01-0006
- Kalghtgi, G. T. et al. “Low NOx and Low Smoke Operation of a Diesel Engine Using Gasoline-Like Fuels,” ICES 2009-76034
- Hildingsson, L. Kalghatgi, G. Tait, N. Johansson, B. et al. “Fuel Octane Effects in the Partially Premixed Combustion Regime in Compression Ignition Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-2648 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2648
- Hanson, R. Splitter, D. Reitz, R. “Operating a Heavy-Duty Direct-Injection Compression Ignition Engine with Gasoline for Low Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1442 2009 10.4271/2009-01-1442
- Kokjohn, S.L. Hanson, R.M. Splitter, D.A. Reitz, R.D. “Experiments and Modeling of Dual-Fuel HCCI and PCCI Combustion Using In-Cylinder Fuel Blending,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2 2 24 39 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2647
- Pirault, J.-P. Ryan, T.W. Alger, T.F. Roberts, C.E. “Performance Predictions for High Efficiency Stoichiometric Spark Ignited Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0995 2005 10.4271/2005-01-0995
- Alger, T. Hanhe, S. Roberts, C.E. Ryan, T.W. III “The Heavy Duty Gasoline Engine - A Multi-Cylinder Study of a High Efficiency, Low Emission Technology,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1135 2005 10.4271/2005-01-1135
- Manente, V. Johansson, B. Tunestal, P. “Half Load Partially Premixed Combustion, PPC, with High Octane Number Fuels. Gasoline and Ethanol Compared with Diesel” SIAT 2009 295
- Manente, V. Johansson, B. Tunestal, P. “Partially Premixed Combustion at High Load using Gasoline and Ethanol, a Comparison with Diesel,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-0944 2009 10.4271/2009-01-0944
- Manente, V. Johansson, B. Tunestal, P. “Characterisation of partially premixed combustion with ethanol: EGR sweeps, low and maximum loads” Proceedings of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2009 Technical Conference, ICES2009-76165
- Manente, V. Johansson, B. Tunestal, P. Cannella, W. “Effects of Different Type of Gasoline Fuels on Heavy Duty Partially Premixed Combustion,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2 2 71 88 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2668
- Manente, V. Tunestal, P. Johansson, B. Cannella, W.J. “Effects of Ethanol and Different Type of Gasoline Fuels on Partially Premixed Combustion from Low to High Load,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0871 2010 10.4271/2010-01-0871
- Manente, V. Johansson, B. Tunestal, P. Canella, W.J. “Influence of Inlet Pressure, EGR, Combustion Phasing, Speed and Pilot Ratio on High Load Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion,” SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-1471 2010 10.4271/2010-01-1471
- Millington, B.W. Hartles, E.R. “Frictional Losses in Diesel Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 680590 1968 10.4271/680590
- Miles, P. C. et al. “Rate-Limiting Processes in Late-Injection, Low Temperature Diesel Combustion Regimes” Thiesel, Valencia, Spain September 7-10 2004
- Hirao, O. Pefley, R.K. “Present and Future Automotive Fuels - Performance and Exhaust Clarification” John Wiley and Sons Inc. 1988 0-471-80259-X
- Horn, U. Persson, H. Egnell, R. Andersson, Ö. et al. “The Influence of Fuel Properties on Transient Liquid Phase Spray Geometry and on CI-Combustion Characteristics,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2 2 300 311 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2774
- Kook, S. Pickett, L.M. “Effect of Fuel Volatility and Ignition Quality on Combustion and Soot Formation at Fixed Premixing Conditions,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2 2 11 23 2009 10.4271/2009-01-2643
- Nakakita, K. Ban, H. Takasu, S. Hotta, Y. et al. “Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure in Diesel Fuel on in-Cylinder Soot Formation and Exhaust Emissions,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-01-1914 2003 10.4271/2003-01-1914
- Nakakita, K. Takasu, S. Ban, H. Ogawa, T. et al. “Effect of Hydrocarbon Molecular Structure on Diesel Exhaust Emissions Part 1: Comparison of Combustion and Exhaust Emission Characteristics among Representative Diesel Fuels,” SAE Technical Paper 982494 1998 10.4271/982494
- Heywood, J. B. “Internal Combustion Engines Fundamentals” McGraw-Hill New York 1989
- Kumar, S. et al. “The Effect of Diesel fuel properties on Emissions-Restrained Fuel Economy at Mid-Load Conditions” DEER Conference Detroit, MI August 5 2008
- Johansson, B. “Forbranningsmotorer” LTH Lund 2006
- Olsson, J.-O. Tunestål, P. Haraldsson, G. Johansson, B. “A Turbo Charged Dual Fuel HCCI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1896 2001 10.4271/2001-01-1896