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Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines

Journal Article
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published October 25, 2010 by SAE International in United States
Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines
Citation: Lee, D. and Heywood, J., "Effects of Secondary Air Injection During Cold Start of SI Engines," SAE Int. J. Engines 3(2):182-196, 2010,
Language: English


An experimental study was performed to develop a more fundamental understanding of the effects of secondary air injection (SAI) on exhaust gas emissions and catalyst light-off characteristics during cold start of a modern SI engine. The effects of engine operating parameters and various secondary air injection strategies such as spark retardation, fuel enrichment, secondary air injection location and air flow rate were investigated to understand the mixing, heat loss, and thermal and catalytic oxidation processes associated with SAI. Time-resolved HC, CO and CO₂ concentrations were tracked from the cylinder exit to the catalytic converter outlet and converted to time-resolved mass emissions by applying an instantaneous exhaust mass flow rate model. A phenomenological model of exhaust heat transfer combined with the gas composition analysis was also developed to define the thermal and chemical energy state of the exhaust gas with SAI.
The study found that significant emissions reduction can be achieved with SAI by the thermal oxidation process prior to the catalyst, which results in higher exhaust gas temperatures and therefore enhances the chemical process inside the catalyst by faster catalyst light-off. The engine operation, with a relative air/fuel ratio 20% rich of stoichiometric and 100% secondary air, yielded the fastest catalyst light-off time of 4.2 sec. The SAI system reduced HC emissions by 46% to 88% and CO emissions by 37% to 93% compared with the normal operating conditions. The analysis showed that the post-catalyst HC emissions levels were optimized with secondary air flow rates corresponding to an overall exhaust lambda of 1.3. The improvement in the thermal oxidation reaction with the increased mixing rates upstream of the catalyst decreased the catalytic oxidation reaction due to the increased consumption of reactants upstream of the catalyst. Therefore, the post-catalyst HC emission levels were not strongly affected by the mixing rates.