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Validation of Sled Tests for Far-Side Occupant Kinematics Using MADYMO
ISSN: 1946-3995, e-ISSN: 1946-4002
Published April 12, 2010 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Cuadrado, J., Smyth, B., Smith, J., and Digges, K., "Validation of Sled Tests for Far-Side Occupant Kinematics Using MADYMO," SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars – Mech. Syst. 3(1):768-788, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-1160.
Far-side occupants are not addressed in current government regulations around the world even though they account for up to 40% of occupant HARM in side impact crashes. Consequently, there are very few crash tests with far-side dummies available to researchers. Sled tests are frequently used to replicate the dynamic conditions of a full-scale crash test in a controlled setting. However, in far-side crashes the complexity of the occupant kinematics is increased by the longer duration of the motion and by the increased rotation of the vehicle. The successful duplication of occupant motion in these crashes confirms that a sled test is an effective, cost-efficient means of testing and developing far-side occupant restraints or injury countermeasures.
Previous work by these authors analyzed 9 crash modes that represent 44% of the total far-side occupant crash exposure and account for 56% of all MAIS3+ far-side injured occupants in the National Automotive Sampling System/Crashworthiness Data System (NASS/CDS). The study developed a methodology for using MADYMO to specify the sled test conditions that mimic a far-side occupant's kinematics for a wide range of crash environments, including cases with significant vehicle rotation. The approach used both crash tests and finite element models (FEM) to determine the crash pulse. The dummy motion was determined by MADYMO simulations [ 1 ].
Another technique was developed by Smyth and Smith in which they used a pulse from a full-scale crash test to develop a pulse shape, pulse magnitude, and Principle Direction of Force (PDOF) for a sled test [ 2 ]. The kinematics of the dummies in the resulting sled test was generally similar to the dummy kinematics in the crash test. Similarly, the study found that sled tests can be used to simulate highly complicated crashes in which the crash pulse was established by a crash test.
The purpose of this study is to validate the previously developed MADYMO methodology using the crash pulse and dummy kinematics from the actual crash and sled tests presented by Smyth and Smith. Furthermore, a comparison of each technique is analyzed in MADYMO and the results are discussed to determine how each may be best applied for future research and testing of far-side countermeasures.