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Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions - using Conventional Gasoline
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 12, 2010 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Dec, J. and Yang, Y., "Boosted HCCI for High Power without Engine Knock and with Ultra-Low NOx Emissions - using Conventional Gasoline," SAE Int. J. Engines 3(1):750-767, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-1086.
The potential of boosted HCCI for achieving high loads has been investigated for intake pressures (Piⁿ) from 100 kPa (naturally aspirated) to 325 kPa absolute. Experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder HCCI research engine (0.98 liters) equipped with a compression-ratio 14 piston at 1200 rpm. The intake charge was fully premixed well upstream of the intake, and the fuel was a research-grade (R+M)/2 = 87-octane gasoline with a composition typical of commercial gasolines.
Beginning with Piⁿ = 100 kPa, the intake pressure was systematically increased in steps of 20 - 40 kPa, and for each Piⁿ, the fueling was incrementally increased up to the knock/stability limit, beyond which slight changes in combustion conditions can lead to strong knocking or misfire. A combination of reduced intake temperature and cooled EGR was used to compensate for the pressure-induced enhancement of autoignition and to provide sufficient combustion-phasing retard to control knock. The maximum attainable load increased progressively with boost from a gross indicated mean effective pressure (IMEPg) of about 5 bar for naturally aspirated conditions up to 16.34 bar for Piⁿ = 325 kPa. For this high-load point, combustion and indicated thermal efficiencies were 99% and 47%, respectively, and NOx emissions were ≺ 0.1 g/kg-fuel. Maximum pressure-rise rates were kept sufficiently low to prevent knock, and the COV of the IMEPg was ≺ 1.5%. Central to achieving these results was the ability to retard combustion phasing (CA50) as late as 19° after TDC with good stability under boosted conditions. Detailed examination of the heat release rates shows that this substantial CA50 retard was possible because intake boosting significantly enhances the early autoignition reactions, keeping the charge temperature rising toward the hot-ignition point despite the high rate of expansion at these late crank angles. Overall, the investigation showed that well-controlled boosted HCCI has a strong potential for achieving power levels close to those of turbocharged diesel engines.