This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 12, 2010 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The air-conditioning (A/C) compressor load significantly impacts the fuel economy of conventional vehicles and the fuel use/range of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). A National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) vehicle performance analysis shows the operation of the air conditioner reduces the charge depletion range of a 40-mile range PHEV from 18% to 30% in a worst case hot environment. Designing for air conditioning electrical loads impacts PHEV and electric vehicle (EV) energy storage system size and cost. While automobile manufacturers have climate control procedures to assess A/C performance, and the U.S. EPA has the SCO3 drive cycle to measure indirect A/C emissions, there is no automotive industry consensus on a vehicle level A/C fuel use test procedure. With increasing attention on A/C fuel use due to increased regulatory activities and the development of PHEVs and EVs, a test procedure is needed to accurately assess the impact of climate control loads.
A vehicle thermal soak period is recommended, with solar lamps that meet the SCO3 requirements or an alternative heating method such as portable electric heaters. After soaking, the vehicle is operated over repeated drive cycles or at a constant speed until steady-state cabin air temperature is attained. With this method, the cooldown and steady-state A/C fuel use are measured. This method can be run at either different ambient temperatures to provide data for the GREEN-MAC-LCCP model temperature bins or at a single representative ambient temperature. Vehicles with automatic climate systems are allowed to control as designed, while vehicles with manual climate systems are adjusted to approximate expected climate control settings. An A/C off test is also run for all drive profiles. This procedure measures approximate real-world A/C fuel use and assess the impact of thermal load reduction strategies.
CitationRugh, J., "Proposal for a Vehicle Level Test Procedure to Measure Air Conditioning Fuel Use," SAE Technical Paper 2010-01-0799, 2010, https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-0799.
- Rugh, J. Hovland, V. Andersen, S. “Significant Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions by Improving Vehicle Air Conditioning,” Mobile Air Conditioning Summit Washington, D.C. April 14-15 2004
- Gonder, J. Markel, T. Thornton, M. Simpson, A. “Using Global Positioning System Travel Data to Assess Real-World Energy Use of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2017 26 32 2007 10.3141/2017-04
- Official Journal of the European Union “Setting emission performance standards for new passenger cars as part of the Community's integrated approach to reduce CO2 emissions from light-duty vehicles,” http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2009:140:0001:0015:EN:PDF April 23 2009
- State of California Assembly Bill No. 1493 http://www.arb.ca.gov/cc/ccms/documents/ab1493.pdf
- Final Regulation Order, Amendments to Sections 1900 and 1961, and Adoption of new Section 1961.1 http://www.arb.ca.gov/regact/grnhsgas/revfro.pdf
- Manufacturers Advisory Correspondence 2009-01 “Implementation of the New Environmental Performance Label,” Nichols, Mary D. Chairman http://www.arb.ca.gov/msprog/macs/mac0901/mac0901.pdf February 24 2009
- Meeting Minutes State of California Air Resources Board 118 273 http://www.arb.ca.gov/board/mt/2009/mt062509.pdf June 25 2009
- Environmental Protection Agency, 40 CFR Parts 86 and 600 “Fuel Economy Labeling of Motor Vehicles: Revisions To Improve Calculation of Fuel Economy Estimates; Final Rule,” http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-AIR/2006/December/Day-27/a9749.pdf
- Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards Environmental Protection Agency, 40 CFR Parts 86 and 600, Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 49 CFR Parts 531, 533, and 537 257 275 http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/portal/nhtsa_static_file_downloader.jsp?file=/staticfiles/DOT/NHTSA/Rulemaking/Rules/Associated Files/MY2012-2016_CAFE_GHGN_PRM.pdf
- Papasavva, S. Hill, W.R. Brown, R.O. “GREEN-MAC-LCCP®: A Tool for Assessing Life Cycle Greenhouse Emissions of Alternative Refrigerants,” SAE Int. J. Passeng. Cars - Mech. Syst. 1 1 746 756 2008
- Environmental Protection Agency “Comparing the Climate Impacts of Mobile Air Conditioners: Global Refrigerants Energy & Environmental Mobile Air Conditioning Lifecycle Climate Change Performance (GREEN-MAC-LCCP)© Model,” http://epa.gov/cppd/mac/compare.htm
- SAE International Surface Vehicle Standard “Life Cycle Analysis to Estimate the CO 2 -Equivalent Emissions from MAC Operation,” SAE Standard J2766 Feb. 2009 http://www.sae.org/technical/standards/J2766_200902