This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Multi-dimensional modeling of the air/fuel mixture formation process in a PFI engine for motorcycle applications
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published September 13, 2009 by Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche in Italy
Annotation ability available
The preparation of the air-fuel mixture represents one of the most critical tasks in the definition of a clean and efficient SI engine. Therefore it becomes necessary to consolidate the numerical methods which are able to describe such a complex physical process.
Within this context, the authors developed a CFD methodology into an open-source code to investigate the air-fuel mixture formation process in PFI engines. Attention is focused on moving mesh algorithms, Lagrangian spray modeling and spray-wall interaction modeling.
Since moving grids are involved and the mesh quality during motion strongly influences the computed in-cylinder flow-field, a FEM-based automatic mesh motion solver combined with topological changes was adopted to preserve the grid quality in presence of high boundary deformations like the interaction between the piston bowl and the valves during the valve-overlap period.
The fuel spray was modeled by using the Lagrangian approach, and the spray sub-models (atomization and breakup) were tuned according to experimental validations carried out in previous works. Specific submodels were implemented to describe the impingement of fuel spray with the engine walls. The evolution of the resulting liquid film was also taken into account by solving the mass and momentum equations with the Finite-Area discretization method.
The proposed methodology was applied to simulate a single-cylinder SI engine for motor-scooter applications at a low load operating condition. This operating point was chosen since these engines often run very close to idle conditions when they are used in the urban areas.
- T. Lucchini - Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia - Milano, Italy
- G. D'Errico - Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Energia - Milano, Italy
- F. Brusiani - Università degli Studi di Bologna, DIEM - Bologna, Italy
- G. M. Bianchi - Università degli Studi di Bologna, DIEM - Bologna, Italy
- Ž. Tuković - University of Zagreb, FSB - Zagreb, Croatia
- H. Jasak - University of Zagreb, FSB - Zagreb, Croatia
CitationLucchini, T., D'Errico, G., Brusiani, F., Bianchi, G. et al., "Multi-dimensional modeling of the air/fuel mixture formation process in a PFI engine for motorcycle applications," SAE Technical Paper 2009-24-0015, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-24-0015.
- Kelly-Zion, P. L. Whelan, D. E. Lee, C. F. Lucht, R. P. Peters, J. E. White. R. A. Intake port and in-cylinder spray measurements in motored spark ignition engines 10th Annual Conference On Liquid Atomization and Spray System, ILASS-AMERICAS'97 1997
- Shin, Y. Cheng, W.K. Heywood J. B. Liquid gasoline behavior in the engine cylinder of an si engine SAE Paper 941872 1994
- Min K. D. Norris. M. An overview of hydrocarbon emission mechanisms in spark-ignition engines SAE Paper 932078 1993
- Le Coz, J. F. Catalano, C. Baritaud. T. Application of laser induced fluorescence for measuring the thickness of liquid films on trasparent walls 7th Int. Symposium on application of laser techniques to fluid mechanics 1997
- Ahmadi-Befrui, B. Uchil, N. Gosman, A. D. Issa. R. I. Modeling and simulation of thin liquid films formed by spray-wall interaction SAE Paper 960627 1996
- Trujillo, M. Mathews, W. S. Lee, C. F. Peters. J. E. Modelling and experiment of impingement and atomization of a liquid spray on a wall International Journal of Engine Research 1 87 105 2000
- Nagaoka, M. Miyagawa, H. Ohsawa, K. Ya-mada T. Improvement of fuel behavior model for port-injection gasoline engines The Fourth International Symposium COMODIA 98 1998
- Foucart, H. Habchi, C. Le Coz, J. F. Baritaud. T. Development of a three-dimensional model of wall fuel liquid film for internal combustion engines SAE Paper 980133 1998
- O'Rourke P. J. Amsden. A. A. A particle numerical model for wall film dynamics in port-injected engines SAE Paper 961961 1996
- Stanton D. Rutland C.J. Modeling fuel film formation and wall interaction in diesel engines SAE Paper 960628 1996
- Han Z. Zhu. Z. E. Wall film dynamics modelling for impinging sprays in engines SAE Paper 2004-01-0099 2004
- Trujillo M. Lee. C. F. Modeling film dynamics in spray impingement Journal of Fluids Engineering 2003
- Leduc. C. Modelisation de la condensation en film sur les parois d'une enceinte de reacteur PhD thesis University of Grenoble 1985
- Lucchini, T. D'Errico, G. Jasak, H. Tukovic. Z. Automatic Mesh Motion with Topological Changes for Engine Simulation SAE Paper , 2007-01-0170 2007
- http://www.openfoam.org OpenCFD Limited 2007
- Brusiani, F. Bianchi, G. Lucchini, T. D'Errico. G. Implementation of a Finite-Element Based Mesh Mo-tionm Technique into an Open-Source CFD Code Proceedings of ICES09, 2009 Spring Technical Conference of the ASME Internal Combustion Engine Division 2009
- Lucchini, T. D'Errico, G. Ettorre, D. Ferrari. G. Numerical investigation of non-reacting and reacting Diesel sprays in constant-volume vessels SAE paper , 2009-01-1971 2009
- Lucchini, T. D'Errico, G. Brusiani, F. Bianchi. G. A Finite-Element Based Mesh Motion Technique for Internal Combustion Engine Simulations COMODIA 2008 2008
- Jasak H. Tuković. Z. Automatic mesh motion for the unstructured finite volume method Transactions of FAMENA 30 2 1 18 2007
- Tukovic. Z. Finite Volume Method in Domains of Varying Shape PhD thesis University of Zagreb, Croatia 2005
- Jasak, H. Jemcov, A. Maruszewski. J. P. Preconditioned linear solvers for large eddy simulation CFD 2007 Conference, CFD Society of Canada 2007
- Jasak. H. Dynamic Mesh Handling in OpenFOAM AIAA-2009-0341, 47th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting 2009
- Nordin. N. Complex Chemistry Modeling of Diesel Spray Combustion PhD thesis Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Thermo Fluid Dynamics 2001
- Dukowicz. J. K. A Particle-Fluid Numerical Model for Liquid Sprays Journal of Computational Physics Vol. 35 229 235 1980
- Bracco F. V. Modeling of Engine Sprays SAE Paper , 850394 1985
- Reitz. R. D. Modeling Atomization Processes In High Pressure Vaporizing Sprays Atomization and Spray Technology Vol. 3 309 337 1987
- Reitz R. D. Diwakar. R. Structure of high-pressure sprays SAE Paper , 870598 1987
- Bianchi, G. M. Brusiani, F. Postrioti, L. Grimaldi, C. Marcacci, M. Carmignani. L. CFD Analysis of Injection Timing and Injector Geometry Influences on Mixture Preparation at Idle in PFI Motorcycle Engine SAE Paper , 2007-24-0041 2007
- D'Errico, G. Ettorre, D. Lucchini. T. Simplified and Detailed Chemistry Modeling of Constant-Volume Diesel Combustion Experiments SAE Paper , 2008-01-0954 2008
- Stanton, D. Lippert, A. Reitz, R. D. Rutland. C. J. Influence of Spray-Wall Interaction and Fuel Films on Cold Starting in Direct Injection Diesel Engines SAE Paper , 982584 1998
- Kolpakov A. V. et al. Calculation of the Rebound Condition for Colliding Drops of Sharply Different Sizes Kollodn. Zh. Vol. 47 1985
- Yarin A. L. Weiss D. A. Impact of Drops on Solid Surfaces: Self-Similar Capillary Waves, and Splashing as a new Type of Kinematic Discontinuity Journal of Fluid Mechanics Vol. 283 1995
- Stiesch. G. Modeling Engine Spray and Combustion Processes Springer 2003
- Bai C. Gosman. A. D. Mathematical Modeling of Wall Films Formed by Spray Wall Interaction SAE Paper , 960626 1996
- Jasak. H. Error Analysis and estimation for the finite volume method with applications to fluid flows Ph.d thesis Imperial College of Science, Tecnology and Medicine London 1996
- Ferziger J. H. Peric. M. Computational Methods for Fluid Dynamics Springer 2002