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Optimization of a HSDI Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 20, 2009 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Ge, H., Shi, Y., Reitz, R., Wickman, D. et al., "Optimization of a HSDI Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling," SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):691-713, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2009-01-0715.
A multi-objective genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA3V release 2 code was used to optimize the piston bowl geometry, spray targeting, and swirl ratio levels of a high speed direct injected (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger cars. Three modes, which represent full-, mid-, and low-loads, were optimized separately. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. High throughput computing was conducted using the CONDOR software. An automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters, including open and reentrant bowl designs. A series of new spray models featuring reduced mesh dependency were also integrated into the code. A characteristic-time combustion (CTC) model was used for the initial optimization for time savings. Model validation was performed by comparison with experiments for the baseline engine at full-, mid-, and low-load operating conditions. In addition, computations were made with a detailed chemistry combustion model to further validate the simulation results. Designs that simultaneously reduced emissions and improved fuel economy in the optimization study under different operating conditions were further analyzed. A non-parametric regression analysis tool was used to post-process the numerical results and to provide information about the effects of each design parameter on fuel economy and engine-out emissions. The performance of these new designs was compared to the baseline engine.