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Main Concepts About Pedestrian Head Impacts
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 07, 2008 by SAE International in United States
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Currently The European Union has been considered the best example in pedestrian protection. Since the 70s, the European Parliament together with research institutes and the automotive industry have been studying and developing methods to improve adjusted road structure, have also conducted studies on biomechanics applied to the subject, medical structure and required modifications in the vehicles.
Although it has been considered the best example, during 2004 in Europe (IRTAD) about 39250 fatalities occurred in traffic situation. About 6900 (17,6%) of these were pedestrians and 2650 (6,7%) were bicyclists.
During 2004 in Japan (IRTAD) about 8500 fatalities occurred in traffic. About 2600 (30,7%) of these were pedestrians and 1150 (13,5%) were bicyclists.
The injury frequency of the pedestrian body segments has been investigated since the 60s and the head and the lower extremities have been found the most frequently injured. Head injuries are average 60% (ITARDA) of the cause of death in pedestrian accidents.
CitationFerreira, A. and Baleki, D., "Main Concepts About Pedestrian Head Impacts," SAE Technical Paper 2008-36-0002, 2008, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-36-0002.
- OECD International Road Traffic and Accident Database (IRTAD) www.cemt.org/IRTAD/
- ITARDA Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analyses www.itarda.or.jp/
- Otte, D. “Severity and Mechanism of Head Impacts in Car to Pedestrian Accidents, “International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Impact (IRCOBI)
- EEVC European Enhanced Vehicle-Safety Committee - Working Group 17 www.eevc.org
- Directive 2003/102/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 17th November 2003
- ACEA European Automobile Manufacturers Association ACEA Commitment
- TRIAS63-2004: Japanese Directive
- GTR Global Technical Regulation
- Euro N-CAP: European New Car Assessment Programme - Pedestrian Testing Protocol March 2004 www.euroncap.com.
- SAE Automotive Safety Handbook Second Seiffert, U. Wech, L.
- CHALMERS Review of Injury Biomechanics in Car-Pedestrian Collisions Otte, D. 2001