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Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry on Mixture Development and Late-Injection Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 14, 2008 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Genzale, C., Reitz, R., and Musculus, M., "Effects of Piston Bowl Geometry on Mixture Development and Late-Injection Low-Temperature Combustion in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):913-937, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-1330.
Low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategies for diesel engines are of increasing interest because of their potential to significantly reduce particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. LTC with late fuel injection further offers the benefit of combustion phasing control because ignition is closely coupled to the fuel injection event. But with a short ignition-delay, fuel jet mixing processes must be rapid to achieve adequate premixing before ignition. In the current study, mixing and pollutant formation of late-injection LTC are studied in a single-cylinder, direct-injection, optically accessible heavy-duty diesel engine using three laser-based imaging diagnostics. Simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence of the hydroxyl radical (OH) and combined formaldehyde (H2CO) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are compared with vapor-fuel concentration measurements from a non-combusting condition. Through comparative analysis of OH, H2CO, and PAH fluorescence, mixtures are identified as either fuel-lean, fuel-rich, or of intermediate stoichiometries.
The impacts of combustion chamber design on incylinder mixing processes are explored by comparing three piston bowl diameters of 60%, 70% and 80% of the cylinder bore. The data show that piston-bowl diameter influences in-cylinder mixing and pollutant formation processes by altering jet-jet and jet-wall interactions. When the fuel jets impinge on the bowl wall prior to ignition, adjacent jets merge, forming fuel-rich regions where soot formation occurs. By using a larger diameter bowl, wall impingement prior to ignition is reduced and delayed, and mixtures are leaner throughout the jet. However, a greater fraction of the jet becomes too lean for complete combustion. By using a smaller diameter bowl, a strong jet-wall interaction pushes the fuel-rich jet-jet interaction regions into the center of the chamber, where mixtures are predominantly lean. This reduces net soot formation and displaces fuel-lean regions of otherwise incomplete combustion into the combusting regions near the bowl wall.