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Hydrogen Fuel Consumption Correlation between Established EPA Measurement Methods and Exhaust Emissions Measurements
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 14, 2008 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Thiel, W. and Krough, B., "Hydrogen Fuel Consumption Correlation between Established EPA Measurement Methods and Exhaust Emissions Measurements," SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):679-692, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-1038.
The development of hydrogen-fueled vehicles has created the need for established fuel consumption testing methods. Until now the EPA has only accepted three methods of hydrogen fuel consumption testing, gravimetric, PVT (stabilized pressure, volume and temperature), and Coriolis mass flow; all of which necessitate physical measurements of the fuel supply . BMW has developed an equation and subsequent testing methods to accurately and effectively determine hydrogen fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles using only exhaust emissions. Known as “Hydrogen-Balance”, the new equation requires no changes to EPA procedures and only slight modifications to most existing chassis dynamometers and CVS (Constant Volume Sampling) systems.
The SAE 2008-01-1036, also written by BMW, explains the background as well as required equipment and changes to the CVS testing system. This paper takes hydrogen balance further by testing it against the three EPA established forms of fuel consumption. The instrumentation, testing procedures and results are presented for each of the four fuel consumption methods. The overall goal of the report is to establish the hydrogen-balance method as the default form of hydrogen fuel consumption testing in light-duty vehicles.