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PIV and PLIF to Evaluate Mixture Formation in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fuelled Engine
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 14, 2008 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Kaiser, S. and White, C., "PIV and PLIF to Evaluate Mixture Formation in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fuelled Engine," SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):657-668, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-1034.
In an optically accessible single-cylinder engine fueled with hydrogen, acetone planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and particle image velocimetry (PIV) are used to evaluate in-cylinder mixture formation. The experiments include measurements for engine operation with hydrogen injection in-cylinder either prior to or after intake valve closure (IVC). Pre-IVC injection is used to produce a near-homogeneous mixture for PLIF calibration experiments and to establish a baseline comparison for post-IVC injection. Calibration experiments and a temperature correction allow conversion of the acetone fluorescence signal to equivalence ratio. For post-IVC injection with start of injection (SOI) coincident with IVC, PLIF results are similar to pre-IVC injection. With retard of SOI from IVC, mixture inhomogeneities increase monotonically, with high hydrogen concentration spatially located near the injector and within a smaller volume. For injection late in the cycle, the turbulent fuel-rich area is sharply delineated from the more quiescent fuel-lean region. The PIV vector plots suggest that the observed spatial distribution of hydrogen for SOI retarded from IVC is a consequence of the in-cylinder flow field generated by the injection event. Specifically, in the measured r-θ plane of the cylinder and in the field of view imaged, the vector plots show a large-scale mean flow towards the injector. It is conjectured that the observed flow field results from jet-wall interactions that redirect the leading edge of some of the fuel jets back towards the injector, creating a counter-flow with respect to the other fuel jets, which inhibits further jet penetration. The net result is a high hydrogen concentration near the injector. This scenario confirms that the injector tip geometry, injector location, and injection timing are critical parameters with respect to in-cylinder mixing in direct-injection hydrogenfuelled engine.