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A Comparative Assessment of Electric Propulsion Systems in the 2030 US Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published April 14, 2008 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Kromer, M. and Heywood, J., "A Comparative Assessment of Electric Propulsion Systems in the 2030 US Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet," SAE Int. J. Engines 1(1):372-391, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-0459.
This paper quantifies the potential of electric propulsion systems to reduce petroleum use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the 2030 U.S. light-duty vehicle fleet. The propulsion systems under consideration include gasoline hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEVs), fuel-cell hybrid vehicles (FCVs), and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs).
The performance and cost of key enabling technologies were extrapolated over a 25-30 year time horizon. These results were integrated with software simulations to model vehicle performance and tank-to-wheel energy consumption. Well-to-wheel energy and GHG emissions of future vehicle technologies were estimated by integrating the vehicle technology evaluation with assessments of different fuel pathways.
The results show that, if vehicle size and performance remain constant at present-day levels, these electric propulsion systems can reduce or eliminate the transport sector's reliance on petroleum. However, continued reliance on fossil-fuels without effective carbon capture and sequestration for producing electricity and hydrogen constrain the GHG emission and energy reductions to about 60% below that of present-day spark-ignition technology.