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Occupant Responses in High-Speed Rear Crashes: Analysis of Government-Sponsored Tests
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 14, 2008 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The objective of this study was to analyze available anthropomorphic test device (ATD) responses from FMVSS 301-type rear impact tests. Rear impact test data was obtained from NHTSA and consisted of dummy responses, test observations, photos and videos. The data was organized in four test series: 1) NCAP series of 30 New Car Assessment Program tests carried out at 35 mph with 1979-1980 model year vehicles, 2) Mobility series of 14 FMVSS 301 tests carried out at 30 mph with 1993 model year vehicles, 3) 301 MY 95+ series of 79 FMVSS 301 tests carried out at 30 mph with 1995-2005 model year vehicles and 4) ODB series of 17 Offset Deformable Barrier tests carried out at 50 mph with a 70% overlap using 1996-1999 model year vehicles.
The results indicate very good occupant performance in yielding seats in the NCAP, Mobility and 301 MY 95+ test series. When the dummy responses were normalized by injury assessment reference values (IARVs), the largest normalized responses were 39.5% ± 27.2% (average ± standard deviation) for head acceleration and 46.6% ± 27.0% for chest acceleration in the passenger NCAP series. The tests demonstrate occupant retention on the seat with the lap-shoulder belted dummy and low risks of injury to the head, neck and chest. The yielding seats rotate rearward in the high-speed crashes and provide occupant protection. Dummy responses were higher in the more severe ODB series. The average normalized HIC was 98.3% ± 59.4% for the near-side dummy and 105.4% ± 77.5% for the far-side dummy. The largest normalized neck response was the lower-neck extension moment at 117.7% ± 79.6% for the near-side dummy and 96.7% ± 47.5% for the far-side dummy.
The dummy responses and kinematics in the 301-type rigid barrier tests are consistent with the very low risk of severe injury (MAIS 4+) in rear-impact field accidents. NASS-CDS data shows a risk of only 0.26% ± 0.13% for MAIS 4+ injury in 20-25 mph rear delta V crashes and 0.19% ± 0.13% in 25-30 mph delta V crashes.
The NHTSA crash tests and field accident data show that yielding seats of varying strength provide occupant protection in high-speed rear impacts.
CitationViano, D., Parenteau, C., Prasad, P., and Burnett, R., "Occupant Responses in High-Speed Rear Crashes: Analysis of Government-Sponsored Tests," SAE Technical Paper 2008-01-0188, 2008, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-0188.
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