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Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation and the Sources of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Emissions
ISSN: 1946-3952, e-ISSN: 1946-3960
Published April 14, 2008 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Dec, J., Sjöberg, M., Hwang, W., Davisson, M. et al., "Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation and the Sources of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Emissions," SAE Int. J. Fuels Lubr. 1(1):50-67, 2009, https://doi.org/10.4271/2008-01-0053.
Detailed exhaust speciation measurements were made on an HCCI engine fueled with iso-octane over a range of fueling rates, and over a range of fuel-stratification levels. Fully premixed fueling was used for the fueling sweep. This sweep extended from a fuel/air equivalence ratio (ϕ) of 0.28, which is sufficiently high to achieve a combustion efficiency of 96%, down to a below-idle fueling rate of ϕ = 0.08, with a combustion efficiency of only 55%. The stratification sweep was conducted at an idle fueling rate, using an 8-hole GDI injector to vary stratification from well-mixed conditions for an early start of injection (SOI) (40°CA) to highly stratified conditions for an SOI well up the compression stroke (325°CA, 35°bTDC-compression). The engine speed was 1200 rpm.
At each operating condition, exhaust samples were collected and analyzed by GC-FID for the C1 and C2 hydrocarbon (HC) species and by GC-MS for all other species except formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. These two species were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. In addition, standard emissions-bench exhaust analysis equipment was used to measure total HC, CO, CO2, O2, and NOX simultaneously with the sampling for the detailed-speciation analysis. Good overall agreement was found between the emissions-bench data and total HC from the detailed measurements.
Unreacted fuel, iso-octane, was by far the most prevalent HC species at all operating conditions. Numerous other HC and oxygenated HC (OHC) species were found that could be identified as breakdown products of iso-octane. Several smaller HC and OHC species were also identified. At the highest ϕ, emissions of all species were low, except iso-octane. As ϕ was reduced, emissions of all species increased, but the rate of increase varied substantially for the different species. Analysis showed that these differences were related to the degree of breakdown from the parent fuel and the in-cylinder location where they formed. SOI-sweep results indicated that stratification improves combustion efficiency by reducing the fuel penetration to the crevice and cylinder-wall boundary-layer regions, as well as by creating a locally richer mixture that burns hotter and more completely.