This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Computational Optimization of a Split Injection System with EGR and Boost Pressure/Compression Ratio Variations in a Diesel Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 16, 2007 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A previously developed CFD-based optimization tool is utilized to find optimal engine operating conditions with respect to fuel consumption and emissions. The optimization algorithm employed is based on the steepest descent method where an adaptive cost function is minimized along each line search using an effective backtracking strategy. The adaptive cost function is based on the penalty method, where the penalty coefficient is increased after every line search. The parameter space is normalized and, thus, the optimization occurs over the unit cube in higher-dimensional space.
The application of this optimization tool is demonstrated for the Sulzer S20, a central-injection, non-road DI diesel engine. The optimization parameters are the start of injection of the two pulses of a split injection system, the duration of each pulse, the exhaust gas recirculation rate, the boost pressure and the compression ratio. A zero-dimensional engine code is used to simulate the exhaust and intake strokes to predict the conditions at the closure of the inlet valves. These data are then used as initial values for the three-dimensional CFD simulation which, in turn, computes the emissions and specific fuel consumption.
Simulations were performed for two different cost functions which varied on their emphasis on the emissions targets. The best case showed that the nitric oxide and the particulates could be reduced by over 21% and almost 27%, respectively, below the EPA mandates, while the specific fuel consumption was reduces by approximately 1% over an experimentally verified operating point.
The effect of using boost pressure and the compression ratio as optimization parameters was also investigated and it was found that optimizing either parameter resulted in the nearly same optimal path. Further, it was found that the final emissions and fuel consumption values predicted by optimizing either parameter are practically the same.
CitationSrinivasan, S., Macek, J., Polacek, M., and Tanner, F., "Computational Optimization of a Split Injection System with EGR and Boost Pressure/Compression Ratio Variations in a Diesel Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0168, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-0168.
- Nehmer D. and Reitz R. D.. Measurement of the Effect of the Injection Rate and Split Injections on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions. SAE Paper 940668, 1994.
- Patterson M. A., Kong S. C., Hampson G. J., and Reitz R. D.. Modeling the Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Diesel Engine Soot and NOx Emissions. SAE Paper 940523, 1994.
- Tow T., Pierpont D., and Reitz R. D.. Reducing Particulate and NOx Emissions by Using Multiple Injections in a Heavy Duty D.I. Diesel Engine. SAE Paper 940897, 1994.
- Han Zhiyu, Uludogan Ali, Hampson Gregory J., and Reitz R.D.. Mechanism of Soot and NOx Emission Reduction Using Multiple-Injection in a Diesel Engine. SAE Paper 960633, 1996.
- Uludogan A., Xin J., and Reitz R. D.. Exploring the Use of Multiple Injectors and Split Injection to Reduce D.I. Diesel Engine Emissions. SAE Paper 962058, 1996.
- Su T. F., Patterson M. A., Reitz R. D., and Farrel P. V.. Experimental and Numerical Studies of High Pressure Multiple Injection Sprays. SAE Paper 960861, 1996.
- Ayoub N. S. and Reitz R. D.. Multidimensional Modeling of Fuel Effects and Split Injections on Diesel Engine Cold-Starting. Propulsion and Power, 13:123-103, 1997.
- Pierpont D., Montgomery D., and Reitz R. D.. Reducing Particulate and NOx Using Multiple Injections and EGR in a D.I. Diesel Engine. SAE Paper 950217, 1995.
- Montgomery D. and Reitz R. D.. Six-Mode Cycle Evaluation of the Effect of EGR and Multiple Injections on Particulate and NOx Emissions from a D.I. Diesel Engine. SAE Paper 960316, 1996.
- Chan Michael, Das Sudhakar, and Reitz Rolf D.. Modeling Multiple Injection and EGR Effects on Diesel Engine Emissions. SAE Paper 972864, 1997.
- Wirbeleit F., Enderle C., Lehner W., Raab A., and Binder K.. Stratified Diesel Fuel-Water-Diesel Fuel Injection Combined with EGR - The Most Efficient Incyliner NOx and PM Reduction Technology. SAE Paper 972962, 1997.
- Bedford F., Rutland C., Dittrich P., Raab A., and Wirbeleit F.. Effects of Direct Water Injection on DI Diesel Engine Combustion. SAE Paper 2000-01-2938, 2000.
- Tanner F. X., Brunner M., and Weisser G.. A Computational Investigation of Water Injection Strategies for Nitric Oxide Reduction in Large-Bore DI Diesel Engines. SAE Paper 2001-01-1069, 2001.
- Haupt R. L. and Haupt S. E.. Practical Genetic Algorithms. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, 1998.
- Senecal P.K. and Reitz R.D.. Optimization of Diesel Engine Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Using Genetic Algorithms and Computational Fluid Dynamics. In Tenth International Multidimensional Engine Modeling Meeting, Detroit, MI, March 2000.
- Senecal P.K. and Reitz R.D.. Simultaneous Reduction of Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling. SAE Paper 2000-01-1890, 2000.
- Senecal P.K., Montgomery D., and Reitz R.D.. Diesel Engine Optimization Using Multi-Dimensional Modeling and Genetic Algorithms Applied to a Medium Speed, High Load Operating Condition. In Proc. Fall Technical Conference of the ASME ICE Division, 99-ICE-244, 2000.
- Wickman D.D., Senecal P. K., and Reitz R. D.. Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Geometry Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling. SAE Paper 2001-01-0547, 2001.
- Bergin Michael J., Hessel Randy P., and Reitz Rolf D.. Optimization of a large diesel engine via spin spray combustion. SAE Paper 2005-01-0916, 2005.
- Kim Manshik, Liechty Mike P., and Reitz Rolf D.. Application of micro-genetic algorithms for the optimization of injection strategies in a heavy-duty diesel engine. SAE Paper 2005-01-0219, 2005.
- Liu Yi and Reitz Rolf D.. Optimizing HSDI diesel combustion and emissions using multiple injection strategies. SAE Paper 2005-01-0212, 2005.
- Srinivasan Seshasai, Tanner F. X., Macek Jan, and Milos Polacek.. Computational Optimization of Split Injections and EGR in a Diesel Engine Using an Adaptive Gradient-Based Algorithm. SAE Paper 2006-01-0059, 2006.
- Amsden A. A.. KIVA-3: A KIVA program with block-structured mesh for complex geometries. Technical Report LA-12503-MS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, March 1993.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Non Road Diesel Engines”, volume 63 number 205 of Federal Register, pages 56967-57023, October 23 1998.
- Heath M. T.. Scientific Computing: An Introductory Survey. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, 2nd ed. edition, 2002.
- Dennis J. and Schnabel R. B.. Numerical Methods for Unconstrained Optimization and Nonlinear Equation. Prentice Hall, Englewod Cliffs, N.J., 1983.
- Macek J., Vàvra J., and Vitek O.. 1-d model of radial turbocharger calibrated by experiments. SAE Paper 2002-01-0377, 2002.
- Han Z. Y. and Reitz R. D.. Turbulence modeling of internal combustion engines using RNG k - ε models. Combust. Sci. and Tech., 106:267-295, 1995.
- Tanner F. X.. A Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for the Simulation of High-Pressure Liquid Jets. SAE Paper 2003-01-1044, 2003.
- Tanner F. X.. Development and Validation of a Cascade Atomization and Drop Breakup Model for High-Velocity Dense Sprays. J. Atomization and Sprays, 14(3):211-242, 2004.
- Tanner F. X.. Validation of an Auto-Ignition Model Based on a Transport Equation of a Characteristic Ignition Progress Variable. In Proc. 15th ILASS-Americas Annual Conference, pages 98-102, Madison, Wisconsin, May 2002.
- Abraham J., Bracco F. V., and Reitz R. D.. Comparisons of Computed and Measured Premixed Charge Engine Combustion. Combustion and Flame, 60:309-322, 1985.
- Kong S.-C. and Reitz R. D.. Multidimensional modeling of diesel ignition and combustion using a multistep kinetics model. Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, 115:781-789, 1993.
- Tanner F. X. and Reitz R. D.. The spray-induced flow and its effect on the turbulent characteristic combustion time in DI diesel engines. Atomization and Sprays, 12(13):187-208, 2002.
- Tanner F. X. and Srinivasan Seshasai. Gradient-Based Optimization of a Multi-Orifice Asynchron Injection System in a Diesel Engine Using an Adaptive Cost Function. SAE Paper 2006-01-1551, 2006.
- Tanner F. X. and Srinivasan Seshasai. Optimization of Fuel Injection Configurations for the Reduction of Emissions and Fuel Consumption in a Disel Engine Using a Conjugate Gradient Method. SAE Paper 2005-01-1244, 2005.
- Heywood J. B.. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, international edition, 1988.
- Hiroyasu H. and Kadota T.. Models for Combustion and Formation of Nitric Oxide and Soot in Direct Injection Diesel Engines. SAE Paper 760129, 1976.
- Nagle J. and Strickland-Constable R.F.. Oxidation of Carbon between 1000-2000 C. In Proceedings of the Fifth Carbon Conference, volume 1, page 154. Pergammon Press, 1962.
- Stebler H.. Luft- und brennstoffseitige Massnahmen zur internen NOx-Reduktion von schnellaufenden direkteingespritzten Diesel Motoren. PhD thesis, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), 1998. Diss. ETH Nr. 12954.
- Srinivasan Seshasai. Computational Optimization of Diesel Engines to Minimize Specific Fuel Consumption and Emissions. PhD thesis, Michigan Technological University, 2006.
- Hiroyasu T., Miki M., Kim M., Hiroyasu H., and Miao H.. Reduction of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission and Fuel Economy with Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Phenomenlogical Model. SAE Paper 2004-01-0531, 2004.
- Richard Stone. Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines. Macmillan Press LTD, 3rd edition, 1999.
- Srinivasan Seshasai and Tanner F. X.. A Conjugate Gradient Algorithm Applied to the Optimization of Split Injections for the Reduction of Emissions and Fuel Consumption in a Diesel Engine. Fifteenth International Multidimensional Engine Modeling User's Group Meeting, 2005.