This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 16, 2007 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
In this paper, knock in a Ford single cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine was modeled and investigated using the KIVA-3V code with a G-equation combustion model coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. The deflagrative turbulent flame propagation was described by the G-equation combustion model. A 22-species, 42-reaction iso-octane (iC8H18) mechanism was adopted to model the auto-ignition process of the gasoline/air/residual-gas mixture ahead of the flame front. The iso-octane mechanism was originally validated by ignition delay tests in a rapid compression machine. In this study, the mechanism was tested by comparing the simulated ignition delay time in a constant volume mesh with the values measured in a shock tube under different initial temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio conditions, and acceptable agreements were obtained. The mechanism was further validated by modeling a gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine at both low and high engine speeds. The G-equation combustion model was validated on the Ford DISI engine with spark advance and intake manifold pressure sweeps. Based on the model validation, knocking combustion under boost and globally stoichiometric operating conditions was simulated. Finally, knock mitigation strategies using cooled EGR and/or “two-stage mixing” were assessed based on the numerical analysis.
CitationLiang, L., Reitz, R., Iyer, C., and Yi, J., "Modeling Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a G-equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics," SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-0165, 2007, https://doi.org/10.4271/2007-01-0165.
- Heywood J. B.. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, 1988.
- Livengood J. C. and Wu P. C.. Correlation of Autoignition Phenomenon in Internal Combustion Engines and Rapid Compression Machines. Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion / The Combust. Inst., pages 347-356, 1955.
- Eckert P., Kong S. C., and Reitz R. D.. Modeling Autoigniton and Engine Knock Under Spark Ignition Conditions. SAE Paper 2003-01-0011, 2003.
- Tanaka S., Ayala F., and Keck J. C.. A Reduced Chemical Kinetic Model for HCCI Combustion of Primary Reference Fuels in a Rapid Compression Machine. Combust Flame, 133:467-481, 2003.
- Curran H. J., Gaffuri P., Pitz W. J., and Westbrook C. K.. A Comprehensive Modeling Study of Iso-octane Oxidation. Combust. Flame, 129(3):253-280, 2002.
- Tan Z. and Reitz R. D.. Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Spark-Ignition Engines Using a Level Set Method. SAE Paper 2003-01-0722, 2003.
- Liang L. and Reitz R. D.. Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Modeling Using a Level Set Method with Detailed Chemistry. SAE Paper 2006-01-0243, 2006.
- Schmidt D. P., Nouar I., Senecal P. K., Rutland C. J., Martin J. K., Reitz R. D., and Hoffman J. A.. Pressure-Swirl Atomization in the Near Field. SAE Paper 1999-01-0496, 1999.
- Han Z. and Reitz R. D.. A Temperature Wall Function Formulation for Variable-density Turbulence Flows with Application to Engine Convective Heat Transfer Modeling. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 40(3):613-625, 1997.
- Peters N.. Turbulent Combustion. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000.
- Han Z. and Reitz R. D.. Turbulence Modeling of Internal Combustion Engines Using RNG k-ε Models. Comb. Sci. Tech., 106:267-295, 1995.
- Liang L.. Multidimensional Modeling of Combustion and Knock in Spark-Ignition Engines with Detailed Chemical Kinetics. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2006.
- Kong S.-C., Marriott C. D., Reitz R. D., and Christensen M.. Modeling and Experiments of HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics with Multidimensional CFD. SAE Paper 2001-01-1026, 2001.
- Kong S.-C. and Reitz R. D.. Application of Detailed Chemistry and CFD for Predicting Direct Injection HCCI Engine Combustion and Emissions. Proc. Combust. Inst., 29:663-669, 2002.
- Kee R. J., Rupley F. M., and Miller J. A.. CHEMKIN-II: A FORTRAN Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analyses of Gas Phase Chemical Kinetics. Technical report, Sandia Report, 1989.
- Fieweger K., Blumenthal R., and Adomeit G.. Self-Ignition of S.I. Engine Model Fuels: A Shock Tube Investigation at High Pressure. Combust. Flame, 109:599-619, 1997.
- Pan J. and Sheppard C. G. W.. A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Modes of End Gas Autoignition Leading to Knock in S.I. Engines. SAE Paper 942060, 1994.
- Millo F. and Ferraro C. V.. Knock in S.I. Engines: A Comparison between Different Techniques for Detection and Control. SAE Paper 982477, 1998.
- Draper C. S.. Pressure Waves Accompanying Detonation in Engines. J. Aeronautical Science, 1938.
- Marriott C. D. and Reitz R. D.. Experimental Investigation of Direct Injection-Gasoline for Premixed Compression Ignited Combustion Phasing Control. SAE Paper 2002-01-0418, 2002.
- Liang L., Reitz R. D., Yi J., and Iyer C.. A G-Equation Combustion Model Incorporating Detailed Chemical Kinetics for PFI/DI SI Engine Simulations. 16th International Multidimensional Engine Modeling User's Group Meeting, Detroit, MI, 2006.
- Muñoz R. H., Han Z., VanDerWege B. A., and Yi J.. Effect of Compression Ratio on Stratified-Charge Direct-Injection Gasoline Combustion. SAE Paper 2005-01-0100, 2005.
- Kuwahara K., Ueda K., and Ando H.. Mixing Control Strategy for Engine Performance Improvement in a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine. SAE Paper 980158, 1998.
- Yang J. and Anderson R. W.. Fuel Injection Strategies to Increase Full-Load Torque Output of a Direct Injection SI Engine. SAE Paper 980495, 1998.