This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Investigation of Platinum and Cerium from Use of a FBC
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2006 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Fuel-borne catalysts (FBC) have demonstrated efficacy as an important strategy for integrated diesel emission control. The research summarized herein provides new methodologies for the characterization of engine-out speciated emissions. These analytical tools provide new insights on the mode of action and chemical forms of metal emissions arising from use of a platinum and cerium based commercial FBC, both with and without a catalyzed diesel particulate filter.
Characterization efforts addressed metal solubility (water, methanol and dichloromethane) and particle size and charge of the target species in the water and solvent extracts. Platinum and cerium species were quantified using state-of-the-art high resolution plasma mass spectrometry. Liquid-chromatography-triple quad mass spectrometry techniques were developed to quantify potential parent Pt-FBC in the PM extracts. Speciation was examined for emissions from cold and warm engine cycles collected from an engine dynamometer.
Water soluble platinum (6-hour extractions, 0.45 μm filtered) species represented a small fraction (2.8 ± 1.5%) of total aerosol-associated platinum. A large fraction of the water soluble platinum (44 ± 8%) was present as colloidal-sized particles. A similar fraction (54 ± 6%) of soluble cerium was retained on the ultrafilters. The fraction of platinum associated with the PM that has the potential to form truly dissolved (<10 kDa; ∼2nm) species averaged 1.5 ± 0.3%. Using ion-chromatographic methods it was determined that from 33 to 54% (41.5 ± 6.8%) of the <10 kDa -sized platinum species were anionic in character, while in contrast virtually all (97.5 ± 1.2%) of the cerium species were cationic or neutral in nature. Methanol extractions (24-hour Soxhlet, 0.45 μm filtered) released significantly more platinum (28 ± 1.4% of total) and DCM extractions significantly less platinum (0.66 ± 0.12% of total) than in water extractions. The parent Pt-FBC was not detectable in either methanol or DCM extracts of the diesel PM. The general speciation characteristics of FBC-platinum revealed in this study are consistent with findings of other studies of emissions from gasoline/diesel catalysts and those of environmental reservoirs.
CitationShafer, M., Schauer, J., Copan, W., Peter-Hoblyn, J. et al., "Investigation of Platinum and Cerium from Use of a FBC," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1517, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-1517.
SAE 2006 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V115-4; Published: 2007-03-30
Number: V115-4; Published: 2007-03-30
- Alt F Bambauer A Hoppstock K Mergler B Tolg G 1993 Platinum Traces in Airborne Particulate Matter - Determination of Whole Content, Particle-Size Distribution and Soluble Platinum Fresenius J Anal Chem. 346 6-9 693 696
- Artelt S Creutzenberg O Kock H Levsen K Nachtigall D Heinrich U Ruhle T Schlogl R 1999 Bioavailability of fine dispersed platinum as emitted from automotive catalytic converters: a model study Sci Total Environ. 228 2-3 219 242
- Artelt S Kock H Konig HP Levsen K Rosner G 1999 Engine dynamometer experiments: platinum emissions from differently aged three-way catalytic converters Atmos Environ 1999 33 21 3559 3567
- Barbante C Veysseyre A Ferrari C Van de Velde K Morel C Capodaglio G Cescon P Scarponi G Boutron C 2001 Greenland snow evidence of large scale atmospheric contamination for platinum, palladium, and rhodium Environ Sci Technol. 35 5 835 839
- Belluco U. 1974 Organometallic and Coordination Chemistry of Platinum . Academic Press New York 83 85
- Cleare MJ Hughes EG Yacoby B Pepys Y 1976 Immediate (Type I) allergic responses to platinum compounds Clin. Allergy 6 183 195
- EPA ETV Test Report of Mobile Source Emissions Control Devices 2004 http://www.epa.gov/etv/pdfs/vrvs/05_vr_CDT.pdf
- Epperly RW Sprague BN 1989 Method for catalyzing fuel for powering internal combustion engines Platinum Plus, Inc.
- Fliegel D Berner Z Eckhardt D Stuben D 2004 New data on the mobility of Pt emitted from catalytic converters Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 379 131 136
- Gomez B Palacios MA Gomez M Sanchez JL Morrison G Rauch S McLeod C Ma R Caroli S Alimonti A Petrucci F Bocca B Schramel P Zischka M Petterson C Wass U 2002 Levels and risk assessment for humans and ecosystems of platinum-group elements in the airborne particles and road dust of some European cities 299 1-3 1 19
- Hees T Wenclawiak B Lustig S Schramel P Schwarzer M Schuster M Verstraete D Dams R Helmers E 1998 Distribution of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) in environmental and clinical matrices: Composition, analytical techniques and scientific outlook - Status report Environ Sci Pollut Res 5 2 105 111
- Kistner C Hutchensen J Doyle J Storlie J Metal-Olefin Compounds. IV 1963 The Preparation and Properties of Some Aryl and Alkyl Platinum(II)-Olefin Compounds Inorg Chem. 2 1255 1261
- Konig HP Hertel RF Koch W Rosner G 1992 Determination of Platinum Emissions from a 3-Way Catalyst-Equipped Gasoline-Engine Atmos Environ A - Gen Topics 26 5 741 745
- Lough, G.C. Schauer J.J. Park J-S. Shafer M.M. Deminter J.T. Weinstein J.P. 2005 Emissions of metals associated with motor vehicle roadways Environ. Sci. Technol. 39 826 836
- Lustig S De Kimpe J Cornelis R Schramel P Michalke B Platinum speciation in clinical and environmental samples 1999 Scrutiny of data obtained by using electrophoresis techniques (flatbed and capillary) Electrophoresis 20 7 1627 1633
- Lustig S Zang S Beck W Schramel P 1998 Dissolution of metallic platinum as water soluble species by naturally occurring complexing agents Mikrochim Acta 129 189 194
- Lustig S Michalke B Beck W Schramel P 1998 Platinum speciation with hyphenated techniques: High performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis on-line coupled to an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer - application to aqueous extracts from a platinum treated soil Fresenius J Anal Chem. 360 1 18 25
- Lustig S Zang S Michalke B Schramel P Beck W 1996 Transformation behaviour of different platinum compounds in a clay-like humic soil: Speciation investigations Sci Total Environ 188 2-3 195 204
- Moldovan M Palacios MA Gomez MM Morrison G Rauch S McLeod C Ma R Caroli S Alimonti A Petrucci F Bocca B Schramel P Zischka M Pettersson C Wass U Luna M Saenz JC Santamaria J 2002 Environmental risk of particulate and soluble platinum group elements released from gasoline and diesel engine catalytic converters Sci Total Environ 296 1-3 199 208
- Nachtigall D Artelt S Wunsch G Speciation of platinum-chloro complexes and their hydrolysis products by ion chromatography - Determination of platinum oxidation states 1997 J Chromatogr A 775 1-2 197 210
- Nachtigall D Kock H Artelt S Levsen K Wunsch G Ruhle T Schlogl R Platinum solubility of a substance designed as a model for emissions of automobile catalytic converters 1996 Fresenius J Anal Chem 354 5-6 742 746
- Petrucci F Violante N Senofonte O Cristaudo A Di Gregorio M Forte G Alimonti A 2005 Biomonitoring of a worker population exposed to platinum dust in a catalyst production plant Occupational and Environmental Medicine 62 27 33
- Ravindra K Bencs L Van Grieken R 2004 Sci. Total Environ ; 318 1 43
- Romeo R Uguagliati P Belluco U 1988 Basic mechanistic patterns in platinum chemistry J Organometallic Chem. 354 3 357 368
- Rosner G Merget R Allergenic potential of platinum compounds 1980 Dayan A. Immunotoxicology and Immunotoxicity of Metals Plenum Press New York
- Shafer, M.M. Hoffmann S.R. Overdier J.T. Armstrong D.E. 2004 Physical and kinetic speciation of copper and zinc in three geochemically contrasting estuaries Environ. Sci. Technol. 38 14 3810 3819
- Shafer, M.M. Overdier J.T. Phillips H. Webb D. Sullivan J.R. Armstrong D.E. 1999 Trace metal levels and partitioning in Wisconsin rivers Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 110 3-4 273 311
- Valentine J Ghuman V Copan W 2005 A Bimetallic Fuel Borne Catalyst for Reduced Precious Metal Use in Medium Duty Diesel Engines Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference
- Wei C Morrison GM Platinum Analysis and Speciation in Urban Gullypots 1994 Anal Chim Acta 284 3 587 592
- Zimmermann S Sures B Significance of platinum group metals emitted from automobile exhaust gas converters for the biosphere 2004 Environ Sci Pollut Res 11 3 194 199