This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Characteristics of Transient NO Emissions Based on the First Firing Cycle Analysis of Cold-Start
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 03, 2006 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
The First Firing Cycle (FFC) is very important at cold-start. Misfiring of the first firing cycle can lead to significant HC emissions and affect the subsequent cycles. This paper presents an investigation of characteristics of transient NO emissions in a small LPG SI engine with electronic gaseous injection system. To determine the optimal excess air coefficient ( λ=[A/F]/[A/F]stoic) of the first firing cycle, the emission of instantaneous NO was proposed as a useful criterion to judge if the combustion is occurred or not.
A fast response NO detector- Cambustion fNOx400, based on the chemiluminescence's (CLD) method, has been employed to measure continuous, transient emissions of NO during the first firing cycle in the exhaust port of the engine. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure, instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine and engine-out HC emissions were measured and recorded.
Test results show that the excess air coefficient directly influences the FFC's cylinder pressure, engine speed, HC and transient NO emissions. As the excess air coefficient is reduced from the lean misfiring limit, NO emissions increase quickly, then reduce quickly and then reduce slowly. The relationship between peak cylinder pressure and real time NO emissions can be split into 3 ranges: lean-combustion, transition and rich-combustion. Transient NO emissions can be used to identify the first occurrence of combustion (FFC) - even at the dilute combustion limit. This is because the engine emission of NO indicates the combustion occurrence in cylinder.
CitationLI, L., Li, G., LIU, Z., LI, Z. et al., "Characteristics of Transient NO Emissions Based on the First Firing Cycle Analysis of Cold-Start," SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-1050, 2006, https://doi.org/10.4271/2006-01-1050.
- Henein N. A. Tagomori M. K. Cold-start hydrocarbon emissions in port-injected gasoline engines Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 1999 25 563 593
- Bielaczyc Piotr Merkisz Jerzy Euro III / Euro IV emissions - a study of cold start and warm up phases with a SI (spark ignition) engine SAE Paper 1999-01-1073
- Shen Huixian Shamim Tariq Sengupta Subrate An Investigation of Catalytic Converter Performances During Cold Starts SAE Paper 1999-01-3473
- Cheng Yong Wang Jian-Xin Zhuang Ren-Jun Wu Ning Analysis of Combustion Behavior During Cold-Start and Warm-up Process of SI Engine SAE Paper 2001-01-3557
- Kristine Drobot Isherwood Linna Jan-Roger Loftus Peter J. Using On-board Fuel Reforming by Partial Oxidation to Improve SI Engine Cold-Start Performance and Emissions SAE Paper 980939
- Tang Xiaoguo An artificial UEGO Sensor for Engine Cold Start- Methodology, Design, and Performance SAE Paper 2000-01-0541
- Henein N A Tagomori M K Yassine M K et al. Cycle-by-cycle analysis of HC emissions during cold start of gasoline engines SAE paper, 952402
- Neyachenko Igor I Method of A/F control during SI engine cold start SAE paper. 982521
- Aquino C.F. Transient A/F Control Characteristics of the 5 Liter Central Fuel Injected Engine SAE paper. 810494
- Rizzoni Giorgio et al. IC engine air/fuel ratio feedback control during cold start SAE paper. 961022
- Bielaczyc Piotr Merkisz Jerzy Cold start emissions investigation at different ambient temperature conditions SAE paper. 980401
- Wang Zhensuo Li Liguang Gong Changming Investigation of cold-start based on cycle-by-cycle control strategy in a LPG EFI engine Transactions of CSICE 2004 22 4 337 343
- Liu Zhimin Li Liguang Deng Baoqing Zhang Yongping Combustion Characteristics of Cold Start at Low Temperature Based on the First Firing Cycle Analysis Journal of Combustion Science and Technology 2005 11 4 373 378
- Peckham Mark Hands Tim James Burrell Real Time In-Cylinder and Exhaust NO Measurements in a Production SI Engine[C] SAE Paper 980400
- Reavell K. St. J. Collings Nick Simultaneous Fast Response NO and HC Measurements from a Spark Ignition Engine[C] SAE Paper 971610
- Hands Tim Peckham Mark Campbell Bruce Transient SI Engine Emissions Measurements on the FTP75 Drive Cycle with a Fast Response CO Instrument[C] SAE Paper 2001-01-3540
- Deng Baoqing Li Liguang Xiao Zongcheng et al. LPG pressure regulator