This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published October 24, 2005 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A 2002 Cummins ISM engine was modified to be optimized for operation on gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and advanced emission control devices. The engine modifications included increased exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), decreased compression ratio, and reshaped piston and bowl configuration. The emission control devices included a deNOx filter and a diesel particle filter. Over the transient test, the emissions met the 2007 standards.
In July 2004, the modified engine was installed into a Class 8 tractor for use by a grocery fleet. Chassis emission testing of the modified vehicle was conducted at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Renewable Fuels and Lubricants (ReFUEL) facility. Testing included hot and cold replicate Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) and New York Composite (NYComp) cycles and several steady-state points. The objective of the testing was to demonstrate the vehicle's with the modified engine.
Average vehicle NOx emissions from the UDDS cycle were 6.20 g/mi and 4.26 g/mi from cold and hot runs, respectively, with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) emissions ∼50% of the total NOx emissions. Over the NYComp cycle, the cold start emissions were 12.75 g/mi and the hot start emissions were 7.74 g/mi. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and PM emissions were very low, with average PM less than 0.005 g/mile for hot starts over both cycles.
The test inertia weight was varied from 46,000 lbs to 63,000 lbs to 80,000 lbs on a random basis for repeated hot-start cycles. The NOx emissions varied from 3 to 5 g/mi over the UDDS cycle and from 6 to 8 g/mi over the NYComp cycle.
Steady-state testing was also performed at repeated cruise conditions ranging from 10 to 60 mph. Average NOx emissions on a g/mi basis were the highest for this test matrix at 6.7 g/mi during 10 mph cruise conditions, ∼3 g/mi over 20, 30, 40, and 50 mph cruises, and ∼1.8 g/mi during 60 mph cruise conditions.
The results from this testing showed that the modified engine and emission control systems performed effectively in vehicle operation. The technology performed as expected on two very different test cycles and a range of steady-state speed and load points. The longer-term durability of the technology will be measured after six months with additional chassis testing.
- Teresa L. Alleman - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Christopher J. Tennant - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- R. Robert Hayes - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- Matt Miyasato - South Coast Air Quality Management District
- Adewale Oshinuga - South Coast Air Quality Management District
- Greg Barton - Cleaire Advanced Emission Controls
- Marc Rumminger - Cleaire Advanced Emission Controls
- Vinod Duggal - Cummins Inc
- Christopher Nelson - Cummins Inc
- Mike May
- Ralph A. Cherrillo
CitationAlleman, T., Tennant, C., Hayes, R., Miyasato, M. et al., "Achievement of Low Emissions by Engine Modification to Utilize Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Advanced Emission Controls on a Class 8 Truck," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-3766, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-3766.
- Alleman, T.L. McCormick, R.L. “Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels - Properties and Exhaust Emissions: A Literature Review” SAE Technical Paper No. 2003-01-0763 2003
- Alleman, T.L. Eudy, L. Miyasato, M. Oshinuga, A. Allison, S. Corcoran, T. Chatterjee, S. Jacobs, T. Cherrillo, R.A. Clark, R. Virrels, I. Nine, R. Wayne, S. Lansing, R. “Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-To-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-2959 2004
- Thompson, N. Stradling, R. Zemroch, P.J. de Craecher, R. Sams, T. Neunteufel, A. “Fuel Effects on Regulated Emissions From Advanced Diesel Engines and Vehicles” SAE Technical Paper No. 2004-01-1880 2004
- May, M.P. Vertin, K. Ren, S. Gui, X. Myburgh, I. Schaberg, P. “Development of Truck Engine Technologies for Use with Fischer-Tropsch Fuels” SAE Technical Paper No. 2001-01-3520 2001
- Clark, R.H. Wedlock, D.J. Cherrillo, R.A. “Fuels and Lubricant Base Oils from Shell Gas to Liquids (GTL)” SAE Technical Paper No 2005-01-2191 2005
- Alleman, T.L. Barnitt, R. Eudy, L. Miyasato, M. Oshinuga, A. Corcoran, T. Chatterjee, S. Jacobs, T. Cherrillo, R.A. Clark, N. Wayne, W.S. Lansing, R. “Final Operability and Chassis Emissions Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Trucks Operating on Gas-to- Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters” SAE Technical Paper No. 2005-01-3769 2005
- “Development and Demonstration of Fischer- Tropsch Fueled Heavy-Duty Vehicles with Control Technologies for Reduced Diesel Exhaust Emissions” 9th DEER Conference, Newport, RI August 2003
- Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 86, Subpart N “Emissions Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures.”
- Ralphs Grocery EC-Diesel Truck Fleet: Final Results February 2003
- LeTavec, C. Uihlein, J. Vertin, K. Chatterjee, S. Wayne, S. Clark, N. Gautam, M. Thompson, G. Lyons, D. Hallstrom, K. Chandler, K. Coburn, T. “Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters” SAE Technical Paper 2002-01-0433 2002