This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Aspects of Cabin Fluid Dynamics, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Comfort in Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published May 10, 2005 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Automobile manufacturers and suppliers are under pressure to develop more efficient thermal management systems as fuel consumption and emission regulations become stricter and buyers demand greater comfort and safety. Additionally, engines must be very efficient and windows must deice and defog quickly. These requirements are often in conflict. Moreover, package styling and cost constraints severely limit the design of coolant and air conditioning systems.
Simulation-based design and virtual prototyping can ensure greater product performance and quality at reduced development time and cost. The representation of the vehicle thermal management needs a scalable approach with 0-D, 1-D, and 3-D fluid dynamics, multi-body dynamics, 3-D structural analysis, and control unit simulation capabilities. Different combinations and complexities of the simulation tools are required for various phases of the product development process.
This paper outlines the integration of 3-D vehicle thermal management simulation tools for passenger compartments and highlights crucial aspects of fluid dynamics, heat transfer, deicing, and thermal comfort. Careful and detailed modeling of these processes is compared to simplified approaches and considers the accuracy of the entire thermal management simulation. The theoretical considerations are complemented by practically oriented examples.
New strategies enable components, which are relevant for deicing and comfort, to be optimized in an acceptable time frame. This reduces the use of prototypes and saves time and money.
- J. K. Wolfahrt - VIF - Kompetenzzentrum - Das virtuelle Fahrzeug - Forschungsgesellschaft mbH
- W. B. Baier - AVL List GmbH
- B. Wiesler - AVL List GmbH
- A. Raulot - AVL France S.A.
- J. P. Rugh - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- D. Bharathan - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
- C. Kußmann - MAGNA STEYR Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co KG
CitationWolfahrt, J., Baier, W., Wiesler, B., Raulot, A. et al., "Aspects of Cabin Fluid Dynamics, Heat Transfer, and Thermal Comfort in Vehicle Thermal Management Simulations," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-2000, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-2000.
- “On the Approximation of the Laws of the Member States Relating to the Defrosting and Demisting Systems of Glazed Surfaces of Motor Vehicles,” Council Directive 78/317/EEC of 21 December 1977, Official Journal L 081, 28/03/1978, pp. 27-48.
- “Passenger Car Windshield Defrosting Systems,” SAE standard J902 issued Aug. 1964 reaffirmed Feb. 1999; SAE standard J902a revised Mar. 1967.
- AVL SWIFT User's Manual Version 3.3, AVL LIST GmbH, Graz, Austria, 2004.
- Eilemann A., and Kampf H. “Comfort - Management,” VTMS5, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, 2001.
- Fanger P.O., “Calculation of Thermal Comfort: Introduction of a Basic Comfort Equation,” ASHRAE Transactions; 72; II; p. III. 4.1-4.20; 1967.
- Gordon R. G., Roemer R. B., Horvath S. M., “A Mathematical Model of the Human Temperature Regulation System - Transient Cold Exposure Response,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering 23, no. 6: 434-444, 1976.
- Incropera F. P., DeWitt D. P., “Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer,” John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
- INKA/TILL User Manual, P+Z Engineering GmbH, Munich, Germany, 2002
- Kussman C., “Calculation of Thermal Comfort in Passenger Compartments,” Master Thesis, Technikum Joanneum, Graz, Austria, 2002 (in German).
- Martinho N. A. G., Ramos J. A. E., Silva M. C. G., “Thermal Environment in the Cabin of a Multi Purpose Vehicle,” in proceedings Roomvent Conference, Kopenhagen, Denmark, 2002.
- Marzy R., Hager J., and Doppelbauer C., “Optimization of Vehicle Warm-up Using Simulation Tools,” VTMS5, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, 2001.
- Rugh, J., Bharathan, D., ““Predicting Human Thermal Comfort in Automobiles,” VTMS7, Toronto, Canada, 2005.
- Samhaber C, Wimmer A, Loibner E., “Modeling of Engine Warm-Up with Integration of Vehicle and Engine Cycle Simulation,” SAE Technical Paper Series 2001-01-1697, 2001
- Skea, A. F., Harrison R. D., Baxendale A. J., Fletcher, D., “Comparison of CFD Simulation Methods and Thermal Imaging with Windscreen Defrost Pattern,” VTMS5, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, 2001.
- Smith C. E., “A Transient, Three-Dimensional Model of the Human Thermal System,” PhD Thesis, Kansas State University, 2001.
- Taxis-Reischl, B., Morgenstern, S., Brotz F, and Rersch, T., “Progress in the Optimized Application of Simulation Tools in Vehicle Air Conditioning,” VTMS5, Nashville, Tennessee, USA, 2001.
- Tsai C-F., Nixon G., “Transient Temperature Distribution of a Multilayer Composite Wall with Effects of Internal Thermal Radiation and Conduction,” Numr. Heat Transfer, vol. 10, pp. 95-101, 1986
- Zhang H., Huizenga C., Arens E., “Thermal Sensation and Comfort in a Transient Non-Uniform Thermal Environment,” 5th International Meeting on Thermal Manikins and Modelling, Strasbourg, France, 2003.
- Zhang H., “Human Thermal Sensation and Comfort in Transient and Non-Uniform Thermal Environments,” PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Fall 2003.