This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Comparative Study of Characteristics of Diesel-Fuel and Dimethyl-Ether Sprays in the Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published April 11, 2005 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
A comparative study of characteristics of diesel fuel and dimethyl ether sprays was conducted on the basis of momentum conservation. The analysis reveals that the DME spray in the diesel combustion system may not develop as well as that of diesel fuel at high engine loads and speeds due primarily to the following reasons. (1) Because 42% more fuel volume must be injected into the engine to reach the diesel-fuel equivalent and because the DME injection pressure is lower than that of diesel fuel, longer injection duration for DME is needed even if with the enlarged orifice diameters. As a result, the penetration of the DME spray tends to be longer than that of diesel fuel. (2) Due to the enlarged diameter, the DME orifice becomes hydrodynamically short and the contracted fuel flow at the orifice entrance is not recovered fully; the still-diverging orifice flow at the orifice exit results in an increased angle for the subsequent spray. (3) Being less dense and more volatile than diesel fuel, DME has a higher gas-to-liquid density ratio in the spray, which also tends to increase the spray angle. Because of the large spray angle, the fuel-rich boundaries (due to the rapid fuel evaporation) of the DME sprays from different orifices of the injector tend to overlap under long injection duration and a strong swirl, which is unfavorable to complete combustion.
CitationTeng, H. and McCandless, J., "Comparative Study of Characteristics of Diesel-Fuel and Dimethyl-Ether Sprays in the Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1723, 2005, https://doi.org/10.4271/2005-01-1723.
CI Engine Performance for Use With Alternative Fuels, and New Diesel Engines and Components
Number: SP-1978 ; Published: 2005-04-11
Number: SP-1978 ; Published: 2005-04-11
- Kapus, P. and Ofner, H., “Development of Fuel Injection Equipment and Combustion System for DI Diesels Operated on Dimethyl Ether,” SAE Paper, No.950062, 1995.
- Glensvig, M., Sorenson, S.C. and Abata, D.L., “High-Pressure Injection of Dimethyl Ether,” ICE-Vol.27-3, ASME, 1996.
- Glensvig, M., Sorenson, S.C. and Abata, D.L., “An Investigation of the Injection Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether,” ICE-Vol.29-3, ASME, 1997.
- Sorenson, S.C., Glensvig, M. and Abata, D.L., “Dimethyl Ether in Diesel Fuel Injection Systems,” SAE Paper, No.981159, 1998.
- Sorenson, S.C., Glensvig, M. and Abata, D.L., “Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies,” Proc. of the 2nd Intl Workshop on Advanced Spray Combustion, Nov.24-26, 1998, Hiroshima, Japan.
- Wakai, K., Nishida, K., Yoshizaki, T. and Hiroyasu, H., “Spray Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether Injected by D.I. Diesel Injector,” Proc. of the 4th Intl Symp. COMODIA 98 (held on July 20-23, 1998, Kyoto, Japan), pp.537-542, 1998.
- Huang, Z.H., Wang, H.W., Chen, H.Y., Zhou, L.B. and Jiang, D.M., “Study of Compression Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether,” J. Automobile Engr., Vol.213, No.6, pp.647-652, 1999.
- Kim, I., Lee, D. and Goto, S., “Combustion Process Visualization in a Dimethyl Ether Fueled DI Diesel Engine,” JSAE Paper, No.9939929, 1999.
- Wakai, K., Nisida, K., Yoshizaki, T. and Hiroyasu, H., “Spray Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether Injected from a DI Diesel Injection Nozzle,” JSAE Transactions, Vol.30, pp.41-47, 1999.
- Andersson, Ö, Collin, R., Aldén, M. and Egnell, R., “Quantitative Imaging of Equivalence Ratio in DME Sprays Using a Chemically Preheated Combustion Vessel,” SAE Paper, No.2000-01-2758, 2000.
- Xu, S.-D., Yao, M.-F. and Xu, J.-F., “An Experimental Investigation on the Spray Characteristics of Dimethyl Ether (DME),” SAE Paper, No.2001-01-0142, 2001.
- Lee, S.W., Kusaka, J. and Daisho, Y., “Spray Characteristics of Alternative Fuels in Constant Volume Chamber (Comparison of the Spray Characteristics of LPG, DME and n-Dodecane),” JSAE Review, Vol.22, pp.271-276, 2001.
- Kato, M. Takeuchi, H. Koie, K., Sekijima, H., Kajitani, S., Chen, Z. and Hashimoto, S., “A Study of Low Critical Flow in Nozzle,” SAE Paper, No.2003-01-1928, 2003.
- Seto, T., Yanagisawa, N., Nishitoh, M., Tokumaru, T. and Shirota, K., “Development of the Dimethyl Ether Vehicle,” JSAE Paper, No.20025112, 2002.
- Kajitani, S., “The Technological Problem of the DME Engines,” Engine Technology (in Japanese), Vol.5, No.6, pp.13-17, 2003.
- Kajitani, S., “Temperature Change in the Nozzle Sac of Injector Operated with Dimethyl Ether,” presentation at the 6th International DME Association Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, November 13-14, 2003 (available at the IDA website).
- Hiroyasu, H., Kadota, T. and Aria, M., “Supplementary Comments: Fuel Spray Characterization in Diesel Engines,” pp.369-408, Combustion Modeling in Reciprocating Engines (Mattavi et al. ed), Plenum Press, 1980.
- Hiroyasu, H., “Measurement of Spray Characteristics and Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray,” pp.161-178, Heat and Mass Transfer in Gasoline and Diesel Engines (Spalding D.B. and Afgan N.H. ed.), Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1989.
- Teng, H., McCandless, J.C. and Schneyer, J.B., “Compression Ignition Delay (Physical + Chemical) of Dimethyl Ether - An Alternative Fuel for Compression-Ignition Engines,” SAE Paper, No.2003-01-0759, 2003.
- Kajitani, S., Chen, Z., Oguma, M. and Konno, M., “A Study of Low-Compression-Ratio Dimethyl Ether Diesel Engines,” Int. J. Engine Research, Vol.3, No.1, pp.1-11, 2002.
- Fleisch, T., McCarthy, C., Basu, A., Udovich, C, Charbonneau, P., Slodowske, W., Mikkelsen, S.-E., and McCandless, J.C., “A New Clean Diesel Technology: Demonstration of ULEV Emissions on a Navistar Diesel Engine Fueled with Dimethyl Ether,” SAE Paper, No.950061, 1995.
- Oda, Y., Fujimura, K., Kajitani, S. and Suzuki, S., “Characteristics of Spray Formation and Combustion in Diesel Engines Operated with Dimethyl Ether,” presentation at the 6th International DME Association Meeting, Phoenix, Arizona, November 13-14, 2003 (available at the IDA website).
- Teng, H., McCandless, J.C. and Schneyer, J.B., “Thermodynamic Properties of Dimethyl Ether - An Alternative Fuel for Compression-Ignition Engines,” SAE Paper, No.2004-01-0093, 2004.
- Bayvel, L. and Orzechowski, Z., Liquid Atomization, Taylor & Francis, 1993.
- Lefevre, A.H., Atomization and Sprays, Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 1989.
- Arai, M., Tabata, M., Hiroyasu, H. and Shimizu, M., “Disintegration Process on Spray Characterization of Fuel Jet Injected by a Diesel Nozzle,” SAE Paper, No.840275, 1984.
- Wakuri, Y., Fuji, M., Amitani, T. and Tsuneya, R., “Study on Penetration of Fuel Spray in Diesel Engines,” J. of JSME, Vol.3, No.9, pp.123-130, 1960.
- Melton, R.B., Jr., “Diesel Fuel Injection Viewed as a Jet Phenomenon,” SAE Paper, No.710132, 1971.
- Chiu, S., Shahed, S.M. and Lyn, W.T., “A Transient Spray Mixing Model for Diesel Combustion,” SAE Transactions, Vol.85, pp.502-512, 1976.
- Sinnamon, J.F., Lancaster, D.R., and Steiner, J.C., “An Experimental Study of Engine Fuel Spray Trajectories,” SAE Transactions, Paper No.800135, 1980.
- Chevron, Diesel Fuels Technical Review, Chevron Products Company, 1998.
- Abramovich, G.N., Theory of Turbulent Jets,MIT Press, 1963.
- Yokota, K. and Matsuoka, S., “An Experimental Study of Spray Angle in a Diesel Engine,” JSME Transactions, Vol.43, No.373, pp.3455-3464, 1977.
- Reitz, R.D. and Bracco, F.V., “On the Dependence of Spray Angle and Other Spray Parameters on Nozzle Design and Operating Conditions,” SAE Paper, No.790494, 1979.
- Bracco, F.V., Chehroudi, B., Chen, S.H. and Onuma, Y., “On the Intact Core of Full Cone Sprays,” SAE Transactions, Vol.94, Paper No.850126, 1985.
- Heywood, J.B., Internal Combustion Engines, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988.
- Teng, H., Laminar Instability of Cylindrical Liquid Jets, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Hawaii, 1994.
- Tong, L.S., Boiling Heat Transfer and Two-Phase Flow, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1965.
- Teng, H., Masutani, S.M, and Kinoshita, C.M., “Non-linear Analysis of Flow in Post Dry-out Heat Transfer,” pp.150-157, Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer (Chen X.J. et al. ed.), Begell House, Inc., 1994.
- Rajaratnam, N., Turbulent Jets, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, 1976.
- Blevins, R.D., Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook, Krieger Publishing Company, Reprinted edition, 1992.