This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Detailed Kinetic Modeling and Laser Diagnostics of Soot Formation Process in Diesel Jet Flame
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 08, 2004 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
This work investigates the soot formation process in diesel jet flame using a detailed kinetic soot model implemented into the KIVA-3V multidimensional CFD code and 2D imaging by use of time-resolved laser induced incandescence (LII). The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver using Message Passing Interface (MPI). This allows for the chemical reactions to be simulated in parallel on multiple CPUs. The detailed soot model used is based on the method of moments, which begins with fuel pyrolysis, followed by the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, their growth and coagulation into spherical particles, and finally, surface growth and oxidation of the particles. The model can describe the spatial and temporal characteristics of soot formation processes such as soot precursors distributions, nucleation rate and surface reaction rate. The experiments by use of laser induced incandescence were conducted using a constant volume combustion vessel which simulated diesel engine conditions. The distribution of soot volume fraction and particle diameter in diesel jet was revealed by time-resolved LII measurements, and qualitative agreement was obtained between the experimental and simulation results. The experimental results show that the smaller particles are made up of majority of soot formation region in the jet at the early time of the start of soot formation, which become larger around the periphery of the soot formation region with transition to the diffusion combustion phase, and rapidly transform the large particle after the end of injection. Also, simulation results show that the soot particles are formed to surround the soot precursor formation region and to extend downstream. It was also found that the dominant soot growth process differs by the region in the fuel jet. The particle inception is fast around the central region of the jet, and C2H2 surface reaction rate becomes higher toward the periphery of the jet.
CitationIto, T., Hosaka, T., Ueda, M., Senda, J. et al., "Detailed Kinetic Modeling and Laser Diagnostics of Soot Formation Process in Diesel Jet Flame," SAE Technical Paper 2004-01-1398, 2004, https://doi.org/10.4271/2004-01-1398.
New Diesel Engines and Components, and Compression Ignition Combustion Process
Number: SP-1821 ; Published: 2004-03-08
Number: SP-1821 ; Published: 2004-03-08
SAE 2004 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V113-4 ; Published: 2005-07-05
Number: V113-4 ; Published: 2005-07-05
- Kosaka, H., Nishigaki, T., Kamimoto, T., Harada, S., “A Study on Soot Formation and Oxidation in an Unsteady Spray Flame via Laser Induced Incandescence and Scattering Techniques,” SAE Paper No.952451, 1995.
- Dec, J. E., “Soot Distribution in a D. I. Diesel Engine Using 2-D Imaging of Laser-Induced Incandescence, Elastic Scattering, and Flame Luminosity,” SAE Paper 920115, 1992.
- Nakagawa, H., Endo, H. and Deguchi, Y., “LIF Imaging of Diesel Spary Combustion,” The Fourth International Symposium COMODIA, pp. 359-364, 1998.
- Aizawa, T., Kosaka, H. and Matsui, Y., “2-D Imaging of Soot Formation Process in a Transient Spray Flame by Laser-Induced Fluorescence and Incandescence Techniques,” SAE Paper 2002-01-2669, 2002.
- Kennedy, I. M., “Models of Soot Formation and Oxidation,” Prog. Enegy Combust. Sci., vol. 23, pp.95-132, 1997.
- Hiroyasu, H. and Kadota, T., “Models for Combustion and Formation of Nitric Oxide and Soot in DI Diesel Engines,” SAE Paper 760129, 1976.
- Belardini, P., Bertoli, C., Ciajolo, A., D'Anna, A., and Del Giacomo, N., “Three-Dimensional Calculations with InCylinder Sampling Valve Data,” SAE Paper 922225, 1992.
- Han, Z., Uludogan, A., Hampson, G. H. and Reitz, R. D., “Mechanism of Soot and NOx Emission Reduction Using Multiple-Injection in a Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper 960633, 1996.
- Belardini, P., Bertoli, C., Beatrice, C., D'Anna, A., and Del Giacomo, N., “Application of a Reduced Kinetic Model for Soot Formation and Burnout in Three-Dimensional Diesel Combustion Computations,” Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 2517-2524, 1996.
- Fusco, A., Knox-Kelecy, A. L., and Foster, D. E., “Application of a Phenomenological Soot Model for Diesel Engine Combustion,” The Thied International Symposium COMODIA, pp.571-576, 1994.
- Kazakov, A. and Foster D. E., “Modeling of Soot Formation During DI Diesel Combustion Using A Multi-Step Phenomenological Model,” SAE Paper 982463, 1998.
- Ishii, H., Goto, Y., Odaka, M., Kazakov, A., Foster, D. E., “Comparison of Numerical Results and Experimental Data on Emission Production Processes in Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper 2001-01-0656, 2001.
- Yoshihara, Y., Kazakov, A., Wang, H., and Frenklach, M., “Reduced Model of Soot Formation: Application to the Natural Gas-Fueled Diesel Combustion,” Twenty-Fifth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp.941-948, 1994.
- Pitsch, H., Wan, Y. P., and Peters, N., “Numerical Investigation of Soot Formation and Oxidation under Diesel Engine Conditions,” SAE Paper 952357, 1995.
- Pitsch, H., Barths, H., and Peters, N., “Three-Dimenstional Modeling of NOx and Soot Formation in DI-Diesel Engines Using Detailed Chemistry Based on the Interactive Flamelet Approach,” SAE Paper 962057.
- Astill, A. G., Smith, A. P., and Stopford, P. J., “Soot Formation and Oxidation: Development of a Numerical Model and Comparison with Experimental Data from a High Pressure Diesel Combustion Bomb,” SAE Paper 97113, 1997.
- Will, S., Schraml, S., and Leipertz, A., “Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Soot Diagnostics Based on Laser-Induced Incandescence (LII),” Twenty-Sixth Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp. 2277-2284, 1996.
- Will, S., Schraml, S., Bader, K., and Leipertz, A., “Performance characteristics of soot primary particle size measurements by time-resolved laser-induced incandescence,” Applied Optics, Vol. 37, No. 24, pp. 5647-5658, 1998.
- Axelsson, B., Collin, R., and Per-Erik Bengtsson, “Laser-induced incandescence for soot particle size measurements in premixed flat flames,” Applied Optics, Vol. 39, No. 21, pp. 3683-3690, 2000.
- Schraml, S., Will, S., Leipertz, A., “Simultaneous Measurement of Soot Mass Concentration and Primary Particle Size in the Exhaust of a DI Diesel Engine by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TIRE-LII),” SAE Paper 199-01-0146, 1999.
- Heimgärtner, C., Schraml, S., Will, S. and Leipertz, “Laser-Induced Incandescence Soot Analyzer (LI2SA) for Soot Mass Concentration and Primary Particle Size Measurement in Engine Exhaust Gases,” The Fifth International Symposium COMODIA, pp. 604-612., 2001.
- Smallwood, G. J., Snelling, D. R., Neill, W. S., Liu, F., Bachalo, W. D., and Gülder, Ö. L., “Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Particulate Matter Emissions in the Exhaust of a Diesel Engine,” The Fifth International Symposium COMODIA, pp. 613-621, 2001.
- Frenklach, M. and Wang, H., “Detailed Mechanism and Modeling of Soot Particle Formation,” in Soot Formation in Combustion - Mechanism and Models, ed. Bockhorn, H., Springer-Verlag, pp. 165-192, 1994.
- Oren, D. C., Wahiduzzaman, S., and Ferguson, C. R., “Diesel Combustion Bomb: Proof of Concept,” SAE Paper 841358, 1984.
- Siebers, D., L., “Ignition Delay Characteristics of Alternative Diesel Fuels: Implications on Cetane Number,” SAE Paper 852102, 1985.
- Eckbreth, A. C., “Effects of Laser-Modulated Particulate Incandescence on Raman Scattering Diagnostics,” Applied. Physics, Vol. 48, pp.4473-4479, 1977.
- Melton, L. A., “Soot diagnostics based on laser heating,” Applied Optics, Vol. 23, No. 13, pp. 2201-2208, 1984
- Leider, H. R., Krikorian, O. H., and Young, D. A., “Thermodynamic Properties of Carbon up to the Critical Point,” Carbon, Vol. 11, pp.555-563., 1973.
- Kee, R. J., Rupley, F. M. and Miller, J. A., “CHEMKIN-II: A Fortran Chemical Kinetics Package for the Analysis of Gas-Phase Chemical Kinetics,” Sandia National Laboratories Report SAND89-8009, 1990.
- Amsden, A. A., “KIVA-3V: A Block-Structured KIVA Program for Engines with Vertical or Canted Valves,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Report LA-13313-MS, 1997.
- Senecal, P. K., Pomraning, E., Richards, K. J., Briggs. T. E., Choi, C. Y., McDavid, R. M. and Patterson, M. A., “Multi-Dimensional Modeling of Direct-Injection Diesel Spray Liquid Length and Flame Lift-off Length using CFD and Parallel Detailed Chemistry,” SAE Paper 2003-01-1043, 2003.
- Ali, A., Cazzoli, G., Kong, S.-C., Reitz, R. D., and Montgomery, C. J., “Improvement in Computational Efficiency for HCCI Engine Modeling by Using Reduced Mechanisms and Parallel Computing,” Third Joint Meeting of the U.S. Sections of The Combustion Institute, 2003.
- Kitamura, T., Ito, T., Senda, J., and Fujimoto, H., “Mechanism of smokeless diesel combustion with oxygenated fuels based on the dependence of equivalence ratio and temperature on soot particle formation,” Int. J. Engine Research, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp.223-248, 2002.
- Wang, H. and Frenklach, M., “A Detailed Kinetic Modeling Study of Aromatics Formation in Laminar Premixed Acetylene and Ethylene Flames,” Combust. Flame, Vol. 110, pp.173-221, 1997.
- Brown, N. J., Revzan, K. L., and Frenklach, M., “Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Soot Formation in Ethylene/Air Mixtures Reacting in a Perfectly Stirred Reactor,” Twenty-Seventh Symposium (International) on Combustion, pp.1537-1580, 1998.
- Apple, J., Bockhorn, H., and Frenklach, M., “Kinetic Modeling of Soot Formation with Detailed Chemistry and Physics: Laminar Premixed Flames of C2 Hydrocarbons,” Combust. Flame, Vol. 121, pp.122-136, 2000.
- Bowman, C. T., Hanson, R. K., Davidson, D. F., Gardiner, W. C., Jr., Lissianski, V., Smith, G. P., Golden, D. M., Frenklach, M., and Goldenberg, M., http://www.me.berkeley.edu/gri_mech/, sponsored by the Gas Research Institute.
- Golovichev, V. I., http://www.tdf.chalmers.se/∼valeri/MECH.html.
- Kazakov, A., Wang, H., and Frenklach, M., “Detailed Modeling of Soot Formation in Laminar Premixed Ethylene Flames at a Pressure of 10 bar,” Combust. Flame, Vol. 100, pp.111-120, 1995.
- Kong, S.-C., Marriott, C. D., Reitz, R. D., and Christensen, M., “Modeling and Experiments of HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics with Multidimensional CFD,” SAE Paper 2001-01-1026, 2001.
- Kong, S.-C., Han, Z. W. and Reitz, R. D., “The Development and Application of a Diesel Ignition and Combustion Model for Multidimensional Engine Simulations,” SAE Paper 950278, 1995.
- Kong, S.-C. and Reitz, R. D., “Modeling HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetics with Consideration of Turbulent Mixing Effects,” ASME Paper 2000-ICE-306, 2000.
- Dan, T., Takagishi, S., Senda, J. and Fujimoto, H., “Organized Spray Structure and Motion in Diesel Spray,” SAE paper 970641, 1997.
- Siebers, D. and Higgins, B., “Flame Lift-Off on Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions,” SAE Paper 2001-01-0530.
- Musculus, M. P. B., “Effects of the In-Cylinder Environment on Diffusion Flame Lift-Off in DI Diesel Engine,” SAE Paper 2003-01-0074, 2003.
- Ito, T., Kitamura, T., Ueda, M., Matsumoto, T., Senda, J. and Fujimoto, H., “Effects of Flame Lift-Off and Flame Temperature on Soot Formation in Oxygenated fuel Sprays,” SAE Paper 2003-01-0073, 2003.