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Head tolerance limits derived from numerical replication of real world accidents
Published September 20, 2000 by International Research Council on Biokinetics of Impact in Switzerland
The validation of the Strasbourg FE head model has been extended to include five tests by Trosseille and two tests by Yoganandan. Only one of each, however, is reported in this paper. Results show that the model correlated well with Trosseille's experiments and predicted the intracranial pressure accurately at sites near to the impact location; predictions became less accurate as the distance from the impact location increased. The skull stiffness and fracture force were very accurately predicted when compared with values measured by Yoganandan. The model was studied parametrically to give a better understanding of how the output varied for different values of the material characteristics such as CSF Young modulus, brain short and long term shear modulus, brain Bulk modulus and skull thickness. Helmet damage from thirteen motorcycle accidents selected from the COST 327 Action database was replicated in drop tests at TRL UK. Simulation of these accidents using the ULP FE model led to very first tentative proposals for injury criteria as follows: Intracerebral Von Mises stress of about 20 kPa for concussion, strain energy in the CSF layer of 4J for subdural haematoma and a Tsaï-Wu criterion for skull fracture.