This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Cold Flow and Ignition Properties of Fischer-Tropsch Fuels
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published June 19, 2000 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Cold flow properties have historically been important for diesel and jet fuels. Reflecting the importance of cold flow properties, several standards have been developed to characterize pour point, cloud point, and filterability. An emphasis on characterizing fuels based on standard testing methods has led to large amounts of data that describe how fuels perform but very little published data that describe what is happening at the molecular level and to the composition of fuels.
Motivated by a desire to have an improved understanding of the cold flow behavior of Fischer-Tropsch fuels, an experimental method was developed to provide easy acquisition of data on the changing compositions of liquid and solid phases as Fischer-Tropsch and diesel fuels traverse cloud point, pour point, and additive-enhanced pour point temperatures. These data provide an insight into the fundamental driving force leading to cold flow behavior manifesting itself as cloud points, pour points, and filterability of diesel fuels by Low Temperature Flow Test (LTFT). Two freezing point depression theory models were compared to the data to identify the relations between composition and cold flow behavior.
An improved understanding of cold flow properties is most important when using Fischer-Tropsch liquids (FTL) as fuels. FTL contain high fractions of C20+ paraffins as well as high fractions of C9- paraffins and alkenes to increase the fractions of C20+ soluble in the liquid phase. This paper evaluates the cold flow behavior and ignition temperature limits for this important class of fuels.
To avoid storing fuel with vapors between the upper and lower ignition temperature limits, inclusion of naphtha down to C6 appears to be a prudent safety precaution. These fuels would require handling precautions similar to those used for gasoline. The purposes of this paper are to (1) provide an improved understanding of cold flow behavior and (2) assess the broad-cut product approach of using Fischer-Tropsch fuels in diesel engines. The broad-cut approach retains naphtha and waxy fractions in the fuel as an alternative to the hydro-isomerization approach that changes the molecular structure of Fischer-Tropsch reaction products.
CitationSuppes, G., Fox, T., Gerdes, K., Jin, H. et al., "Cold Flow and Ignition Properties of Fischer-Tropsch Fuels," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-2014, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-2014.
SAE 2000 Transactions Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
Number: V109-4; Published: 2001-09-15
Number: V109-4; Published: 2001-09-15
- Suppes, G. J Lula C. J. Burkhart M. L. Swearingen J. D. Performance of Fischer-Tropsch liquid (FTL) in modified off-highway diesel engine test cycle SAE Paper 1999-01-1474
- Botros, M. Enhancing the cold flow behavior of diesel fuels SAE Paper 972899
- Holder, G. A. Winkler J. Wax Crystallization from Diesel Fuels Journal of the Institute of Petroleum 51 499 228 252 July 1965
- Suppes, G. J. Terry, M. Burkhart Cupps M. P. Compression-ignition fuel properties of Fischer-Tropsch syncrude I & EC Res. 37 5 2029 2038 May 1998
- Cookson, D.J. Iliopoulos P. Smith B. E. Composition-property relations for jet and diesel fuels of variable boiling range Fuel 74 2 70 78 1995
- Cookson, D. J. Smith B. E. Calculation of Jet and Diesel Fuel Properties Using 13 C NMR Spectroscopy Energy & Fuels 4 152 156 1990
- Cookson, D. J. Smith B. E. Observed and predicted properties of jet and diesel fuels formulated from coal liquefaction and Fischer-Tropsch feedstocks Energy & Fuels 6 581 585 1992
- Reddy, S. R. A thermodynamic model for predicting n-paraffin crystallization in diesel fuels Fuel 65 1647 1652 1986
- Petrovic, K. Vitorovic D. A new method for the estimation of the freezing point of jet fuels based on the n-paraffin content Journal of the Institute of Petroleum 59 565 20 26 1973
- Tsang, C. Y. Ker V. S. F. Miranda R. D. Wesch J. C. Equation predicts cloud points Oil & Gas Journal 33 36 March 28 1988
- Semwal, P. B. Varshney R. G. Predictions of pour, cloud and low-temperature filterability for future diesel fuels with application of diesel blending models Fuel 74 3 437 444 1995
- New correlations predict diesel cold-flow properties accurately Oil & Gas Journal 51 52 June 20 1994
- Marano, J. J. Holder G. D. General equation for correlating the thermophysical properties of n-paraffins, n-olefins, and other homologous series. 2. Asymptotic behavior correlations of PVT properties Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 36 1895 1907 1997
- Marano, J. J. Holder G. D. Prediction of bulk properties of Fischer-Tropsch derived liquids Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 36 2409 2420 1997
- Sandler, S. I. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics John Wiley & Sons NY 1989
- Clothier, P. Aguda B. Moise A. Pritchard H. How do diesel-fuel ignition improvers work? Chem. Soc. Rev. 101 108 1993
- Wuebben, P. Unnasch S. Pellegrin V. Quigg D. Urban B. Transit bus operation with a DDC 6V-92TAC engine operating on ignition-improved methanol SAE Paper 902161
- Reid, R. Prausnitz J. Poling B. The Properties of Liquids and Gases McGraw-Hill 657 1987
- Zabetakis, M. G. Flammability Characteristics of Combustible Gases and Vapors Bureau of Mines Bulletin 5707 121 1965
- Kuchta, J. M. Investigation of Fire and Explosion Accidents in the Chemical, Mining and Fuel Related Industries - A Manual Bureau of Mines Bulletin 680 26 27 1985
- Lloyd, P. The Fuel Problem in Gas Turbines Inst. Mech. Eng. Proc. 41 159 220 1948
- Morgan, P. et al. Some Comparative Chemical, Physical and Compatibility Properties of Sasol Slurry Phase Distillate Diesel Fuel SAE Paper 982488 October 1998