This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Temperature and Heat Flux Measurements in a Spark Ignition Engine
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published March 06, 2000 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Event: SAE 2000 World Congress
This paper has two parts. The first compares the measured burned gas temperature using Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) with the predictions of a multiple zone computer simulation of combustion. The second part describes a system that is capable of determining the heat flux into the combustion chamber by means of measuring the chamber surface temperature.
It is shown that the multi-zone computer simulation can accurately predict the burned gas temperature once the fuel burn rate has been analyzed and the model tuned correctly. The effect of different fuels (methane and iso-octane) on the burned gas temperature is reported. A high burn rate or more advanced ignition timing gave a lower burned gas temperature towards the end of the engine cycle.
The surface heat flux was deduced from measurements of the surface temperature by using a finite difference method. From the experimental results, it was found that there are significant cycle-by-cycle variations in the surface heat flux in both the magnitude and phasing. Therefore, a cycle averaged heat flux has significantly different characteristics from a single cycle. These cycle-by-cycle variations in the heat flux were associated with corresponding variations of the propagation of the flame through the combustion chamber. This in turn is due to the variations in combustion. The effects of ignition timing and air-fuel mixture on the surface heat flux are reported. Comparisons between experimental surface heat flux measurements and established heat transfer models show large discrepancies.
CitationStone, C., Lim, E., Ewart, P., Lloyd, G. et al., "Temperature and Heat Flux Measurements in a Spark Ignition Engine," SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1214, 2000, https://doi.org/10.4271/2000-01-1214.
- Eckbreth, A.C., ‘Laser Diagnostics for Combustion Temperature and Species’, 2nd ed., Gordon & Breach science publishers, Amsterdam, 1996.
- Snowdon, P., Skippon, S.M. and Ewart, P., ‘Improved precision of single-shot temperature measurements by broadband CARS by use of a modeless laser’, Appl. Opt. 30, 1008, (1991).
- Snelling, D.R., Sawchuk, R.A. and Parameswaran, T., ‘Noise in Single-shot Broadband Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy that Employs a Modeless Dye Laser’, Appl. Opt. 33 pp. 8295-8300, 1994.
- Kalghatgi, G.T., Snowdon, P., McDonald, C.R., ‘Studies of knock in a spark ignition engine with CARS temperature measurements and using different fuels’, SAE Paper 950690, 1995.
- Raine, R.R., Stone, C.R., Gould, J., ‘Modelling of Nitric Oxide Formation in Spark Ignition Engines with a Multizone Burned Gas’, Combustion and Flame 102:241-255, 1995.
- Alkidas, A. C., ‘Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Spark Ignition Engine’, Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol 102 No 2, 1980.
- Ball, J. K., Raine, R. R., and Stone, C. R., ‘Combustion Analysis and Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in Spark Ignition Engine Combustion, Part II: A New Parameter for Completeness of Combustion and its Use in Modelling Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in Combustion’, Proc IMechE Part D vol 212 pp507-523, J. Automotive Engineering, London, 1998
- Rassweiler, G. M. and Withrow, L., ‘Motion Pictures of Engine Flames Correlated with Pressure Cards’, SAE Paper 800131 (originally presented in January 1938).
- Roh, W.B., Schreiber, P.W. and Taran, J.P.E., ‘Single Pulse Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering’, Appl. Phys. Lett. 29 pp. 174-176, 1976.
- Shirley, J.A., Hall, R.J. and Eckbreth, A.C., ‘Folded BOXCARS for Rotational Raman Studies’, Opt. Lett. 5 pp. 380-382, 1980.
- Ewart, P., ‘A Modeless, Variable Bandwidth, Tuneable Laser’, Opt. Comm. 55 pp. 124-126, 1985.
- 1Hertzberg, J., Kozlov, D., Rieck, C., Loosen, P., Sperling, M., Welz, B. and Marowsky, G., ‘CARS Thermometry in a Transversely Heated Graphite tube Atomiser Used in Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy’, Appl. Phys. B 61 pp.201-205, 1995
- Palmer, R.E., ‘The CARSFT Computer Code for Calculating Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectra: User and Programmer Information’, Sandia National Laboratories, California, USA, report: SAND89-8206, 1989.
- Hall, R.J., Boedeker, L.R., ‘CARS Thermometry in Fuel Rich Combustion Zones’, Appl. Opt. 23 pp. 1340-1346, 1984.
- Hancock, R.D., Bertagnolli, K.E. and Lucht, R.P., ‘Nitrogen and Hydrogen CARS Temperature Measurements in a Hydrogen / Air Flame Using a Near-Adiabatic Flat-Flame Burner’, Combustion and Flame 109 pp. 323-331, 1997.
- Hohenberg, G.F., ‘Advanced Approaches for Heat Transfer Calculations’, SAE Trans. 88, Paper 790825, 1979.
- Ewart, P., Williams, R. B., Lim, E. P. and Stone, C. R., Comparison of In-Cylinder CARS Temperature Measurements with Predictions from an Engine Simulation’, Accepted for publication, Combustion and Flame.
- Ball, J. K., Raine, R. R., and Stone, C. R., ‘Combustion Analysis and Cycle-by-Cycle Variations in Spark Ignition Engine Combustion, Part I: An Evaluation of Combustion Analysis Routines by Reference to Model Data’, Proc IMechE Part D Vol 212 pp381-399, J. Automotive Engineering, London, 1998
- Gatowski, J.A., Smith, M.K., Alkidas, A.C., ‘An Experimental Investigations of Surface Thermometry and Heat Flux’, Elsevier Science Publishing, 1989.
- Woschni, G., ‘A universally applicable equation for the instantaneous heat transfer coefficient in the internal combustion engine’, Paper 670931, SAE Trans., Vol. 76, 1967.
- Eichelberg, G., ‘Some new investigations on old combustion-engine problems’, Engineering, Vol. 149, 1939.