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Tauerntunnel air quality measurement 1997-verification of the modelling by measured results
Published May 31, 1999 by Technical University of Graz in Austria
The Tauerntunnel is a section of the federal highway A 10 in Austria. The length of the tunnel is 6400 m; the sea level is about 1300 m; the slope is approx. 1.5%. The tunnel is divided into four ventilation sections.
The tunnel ventilation is constructed as full cross ventilation. The crossway flow, which arises from the ventilation and the oncoming traffic, causes a very homogeneous gas concentration in the complete ventilation section. Therefore it is possible to use the difference of input air concentrations to output air concentrations to drive the mass of exhaust emissions.
Two four-hour measurement campaigns, one on a weekday and one on a Sunday were carried out in October 1997.
A detailed count of the traffic data by means of automatic and manual methods, as well as a complete video recording allowed the evaluation with regard to a variety of vehicle categories, vehicle speeds, the country of origin and the approximate vehicle age.
With these data a forecast for exhaust emission components like CO2, CO, HC, Benzene, NOx, PM, SO2 and lead was made. The emissions were calculated with the most up to date base emission factors, which have been corrected for upward and downward slope and altitude.
By combination of these emission data with the input air and output air it was possible to calculate the concentration of pollutants in the Tauerntunnel as half hours and four hour mean average value.
The comparison of calculated and measured concentration for carbon dioxide fitted very well. The calculated results for CO and HC had been clearly too high, the calculated results for the nitrogen oxides too low as compared to the measured data. In general the calculated phase response of the 30-minute results agreed well with the measurements.