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A comprehensive case-by-case study on the environmental effects of various modes of passenger transportation
Published May 31, 1999 by Technical University of Graz in Austria
An important strategy for reducing energy consumption and harmful emissions involves shifting resources from private to public transportation. The results of the average emission units calculations (based on traffic performance) promise an improvement in the status quo. However, upon closer examination of an individual''s transportation demands, these calculations prove faulty in some areas.
In travelling front point A to point B, an individual''s energy consumption and emissions will vary based on the choice of means of transportation (different travel distances), pre-trip and post-trip travel (with bimodal transportation), as well as differing vehicle capacity utilization and fluctuating vehicle energy sources.
All these aspects are taken into consideration in conducting the study commissioned by the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Environment and Transportation. Their effect on primary energy use and emissions (CO, NOx, VOC, NMVOC, CH4, benzene, particulates, and CO2) will undergo analysis for different transportation modes. In the course of actual trips, the energy consumption and emissions are precisely calculated. These calculations take not only the operating conditions of the vehicles into account, but also construction and maintenance of the roads and railways, as well as vehicle production, maintenance, and disposal.
Using these new methods enables a more precise examination of typical planning tasks. To this end, transportation needs during rush-hour, shopping, and leisure traffic are being investigated. Areas examined include metropolitan areas, as well as interurban and rural routes.
Ultimately, this study should spark a debate on traditional planning ideas. Do they truly lead to a reduction in energy consumption and fewer emissions, i.e. is the modal split represented by these traditional ideas indeed the most environmentally friendly?
- I. Kürbis - Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energ
- W. Krewitt - Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energ
- R. Friedrich - Institute for Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energ
- V. Schmid - Dept. of Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering
- M. Wacker - Dept. of Transportation Planning and Traffic Engineering